Nervous Integration

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Nervous Integration
2011-12-09 18:45:42
nervous integration spinal nerves nerve pathways

dr ballard test 4-Nervous system
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  1. epineurium
    • a continuation of the dura mater
    • outermost layer of ct that bound all nerve fasicles
  2. area of skin that provides sensory input to the dorsal rootsof one pair of spinal nerves or to one spinal cord segment is called a
  3. motor neuron cell bodies are in the ___ of the ___
    Sensory neruon cell bodies are found in ____ located ____
    • grey matter, brainstem
    • ganglia outside the brain
  4. conscious, subconscious, or unconscious awareness of external and internal stimuli
  5. CNS translation
    • spinal reflexes
    • visceral relfexes
    • crude perception(thalamus)
    • precise identification (cortex)
  6. graded depolarization that results in a change in resting membrane potential in a receptor
    -produces depolarization
    -will initiate ap in a sensiry neuron if stim is threshold
    -all recetors except for general senses
    generator potential
  7. receptor potential
    • depolarization or hyperpolarizaion of the plasma membrane of receptor cell that alters release of NT from cell
    • -may produce Deploar/hyperpolarization
    • -never directly stimulates AP in a sensory neuron
    • -directly regulates release of NT onto sensory neuron that may initiate thresh depol
  8. an awareness of muscle, joints, tendons, balance activity is provided by
    receptors adapt slowly allowing cns to constantlybe aware fo body postition and make fine adjustments
    proprioceptive (kinesthetic) sense
  9. fasiculus gracilius and cuneatus
    • related to discrim touch, sterogenesis, weight descrimination, vibration, proprioception
    • -part of posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway
  10. lateral spinothalamic tract and anterior/ventral spinthalamic tract
    • pain and temp
    • crude touch, itch, tickle, pressure
  11. the second order neruon in a dorsal column pathway dessucates in the ____
    the sec order neuron in a anterolateral spinothalamic pathway dessecates in _____
    • the medulla
    • the gray commissure of spinal cord
  12. upper motor neurons are found
    the axons of UMN decend through CNS to synapse with LMN in ____
    • motor cortex
    • brainstem grey matter or ventral hors of spinal cord
  13. the three primary pyramidal tracts
    • lateral corticospinal
    • anterior corticospinal
    • corticobulbar
  14. axons of the lateral and corticobulbar tracts dessucate in the____
    anter tracts desucate at ______neruons in the spinal cord
    • medulla
    • lower motor neurons
  15. LMN in later and anterior corticospinal tracts pass into the periphery via___while those associated with corticobulbar tracts pass via ___
    • spinal nerves
    • cranial nerves
  16. parasympathetic innervation of th eyes causes
    sphincter pupillae to contract, constricting pupil, decre amount of light into eye
  17. sympathetic inneration of eyeball
    dialator pupillae contracts, dialating pupil, increasing light into eye
  18. pigmented layer of nervous tunic has_____ that produce ____ that absorb stray light rays and prevent reflection and scattering of light in eye
    • melanocytes
    • melanin
  19. 3 zones of neuronsin nervous layer of nervous tunic(retina)
    • 1.photoreceptors
    • 2. bipolar neurons
    • 3.ganglion cell neurons
  20. how do photoreceptors respond to light energy?
    decrease their secretion of inhibitory transmitter glutamate and initiate the visual pathway
  21. what do bipolar cells do in the visual pathway?
    once glutamate is removed, initiate ap to start the visual pathway
  22. ganglion cells in visual pathway?
    innermost portion, recieve ap from bipolar neurons
  23. where the axons of ganglion cells converge and exit the eyeball as optic nerve
    optic dics
  24. function of the lens?
    by changing bioconvexity focuses light on central fovea of retina when distance changes
  25. anterior chamber
    posterior chamber
    • lies behind the cornea and in front of the iris
    • behind the iris, infront of suspensory ligs and lens
  26. posterior cavity
    • lies between lens and retina
    • vitrous cavity
  27. when focusing on a near object the lens becomes more biconvex. the increas in curvature is
    pupil also constricts so that less light enters the eye
    accomadation reflex
  28. from the thalamic nuclei come axons collected together which pass to theprimary areas in the occipitpal lobes of the cerebral cortex
    optic RADIATIONS
  29. if you were to chiasma you would lose
    • medial vison bcuz it crosses over
    • lateral retinal pathway is on the same side
  30. protective muscles of ear produce the tympanic relflex
    • stapedius and tensor tympani
    • for sudden loud noise and constant long noise- helps dampen sound
  31. makes the bony labyrinth of internal ear
    vestibule cochlea, 3semicircular canals, perimlymph
  32. membranous labyrinth of internal ear
    • semi circular ducts
    • utricle and saccule of vestibule
    • cochlear duct of chochlea
    • endolymph
  33. organ of hearing
    spiral organ of corti
  34. receptors for hearing
    hair cells connected to basilar membrane
  35. tectorial membrane
    • where stereocilia are embedded
    • bending of stereocilia creates actional pot in aud pathway
  36. saccule and utricle in vestible
    where we maintain static equilibrium
  37. ottoliths of macula
    • calcium carbonate stones embedded in gelatinous ottolithic membrane in endolymph
    • static EQ
  38. semicircular ducts
    cupula in the ampulla responsible for
    • dynamic EQ
    • accceleration moves hair cells in ampullae
    • overlying the hair cells are massesof gelatinous material each called a cupula
  39. how the middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx functioning to eq the air pressures between the atmosphere and the middle ear cavity, ensuring free mvmt of the tympanic membrane as it vibrates
    auditory tube
  40. dual innervations
    if one division starts or increases the activity of an organ the other division will stop or decrease activity
  41. receptor types for ANS
    chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, mechanorececptors
  42. types of visceral motor neurons by divisions of ANS
    preganglionic and post ganglionic
  43. where is the cell body of a preganglionic neuron located?
    gray matter of spinal cord or brain
  44. how does axon of preganglionic neuron pass from the CNS?
    axons passes from the CNS in a spinal or cranial nerve
  45. where does preganglionic axon terminate
    in a ganglion
  46. What is a ganglion
    collection of nerve cell bodies located in specfic site outside CNS
  47. where is cell body of postganglionic neuron?
    in a specific ganglion dependent on the division of ans to which neruon it belongs and whic organ it will innervate
  48. where does axon of postganglionic neriond terminate?
    passes from ganglion to effector
  49. what efect does the postganglionic neuron have on the effector?
    (cardiac msucle, smooth, gland is either stimululated or inhibited depending on division of ANS
  50. sympathetic preganglionic neurons orginate from the____ of spinal cord segs___. Their axons travel in the spinal nerves of these segments, therefor sympathetic division is called___
    and the preganglionic axons are the___
    • later gray horns
    • T1-L2
    • Thoracolumbar division
    • thoracolumbar outflow
  51. origin of the parasympathetic preganglionic neurons
    this divison is called the___
    and the preganglionic axons are the ____
    • rise from the nuclei of cranial nerves II VII X and lateral gray horns of spinal cord seg s2-4
    • craniosacral division
    • craniosacral outflow
  52. ganglia lie as three clusters associated with three unpaired arteries arising from the abdominal aorta(celiac, superior mesentaric, mesentaric)
    these are used by the___ division
    • Prevertebral ganglia
    • sympathetic
  53. intermural ganglia located very lose to or within the walls of the organ to be innervated
    used by the ___ system
    • terminal ganglia
    • parasympathetic
  54. sympathetic preganglionic neurons are faily short because and parasmpathetic preganglionic fibers are long because
    • the spinal cord is close to sympathetic chain and collateral ganglia,
    • distance between brain or spinal cord and innervated organs is large
  55. postganglionic sympathetic neurons are
    and parasympathetic postganglionic fibers are
    • long,
    • short
    • but all postgangs of either system have their axons pass from the respective ganglia to the efector for innervation
  56. what is the ultimate controller if autonomic tone?
    the hypothalamus regulates the balance of symp vs. parasym activity or tone
  57. neruotransmitter of adrenergic
    which neurons use this NT?
    what enzymes destroy the NT
    • norepinephrine
    • mostpostganglionic sympathetic neurons
    • catecholO, methyltransferase, monamine oxidase
  58. NT of the Cholinergic system
    What neurons use it?
    what ezymes destroy it?
    • acetylcholine
    • all preganglionic neurons
    • all postganglionic parasympathetic , few postganglionic sympathetic
    • actylcholinesterase
  59. SLUD
    • controlled by the parasympathetic system
    • saliva, lacrimal, urination, defecation
  60. activation in the medulla causing secretion of norepi and epinephrine as hormones to greatly heighten the response
    is sympathetic activation