Hist 251

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  1. Agustin de Iturbide
    Creole military commander in Mexico who first fights for the royalists but later switches sides after uniting with Vicente Guerrero under the Plan de Iguala. After independence he is crowned the first emperor of Mexico, but he is deposed and executed after less than a year.
  2. Antonio de Ulloa
    Explorer and scientist in Louisiana (where he was also governor) and Peru
  3. Asiento
    Royal monopoly
  4. Battle of Ayacucho
    Jose de Sucre leads a combined contingent of Argentine, Colombian, Peruvian, Chilean, and Venezuelan forces to defeat the royalist army in the Peruvian highlands. Seen as clinching independence for Spanish America, though Bolivia was yet to be liberated.
  5. Battle of Chacabuco
    fought during the Chilean War of Independence, occurred on February 12, 1817. The Army of the Andes of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata led by GeneralCaptain José de San Martín defeated the Spanish force led by Rafael Maroto. It was a defeat for the Captain Generalcy of Chile, the Spain-controlled government established after the division of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
  6. Battle of Monte de las Cruces
    Was one of the pivotal battles of the early Mexican War of Independence. It was fought between the insurgent troops of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Ignacio Allende against the royalist troops of General Torcuato Trujillo in the Sierra de las Cruces mountains between Mexico City and Toluca. The battle marks the furthest advance of the first rebel campaign, before Hidalgo decided to retreat towards Guadalajara, and not attack Mexico City, despite the fact that he won the battle. The battlefield is now located in the La Marquesa National Park, which is officially called the Miguel Hidalgo National Park in honor of the event.
  7. Bernardo O'Higgins
    Founding father of Chile. Led the rebel army, eventually teamed up with San Martin to finally win it.
  8. Charles III
    The most active and capable of the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, presided over many of the reforms.
  9. Charles IV
    He was overthrown by the Napoleonic Invaision
  10. Company of Pará and Grão Maranhão
    Joint-stock companies created to develop Brazil.
  11. Continental System
    Napoleon could not compete with British naval power, so he enforced a system of trade that was meant to keep Europe trading mainly within Europe, cutting much of England’s economic power and enriching France. Smuggling is rampant and the system fails.
  12. Cortes
  13. Dom João VI
  14. Dom José I
  15. Dom Pedro I
    First emperor of Brazil, declares independence. Eventually forced to abdicate and sent back to Portugal.
  16. Ferdinand VII
    “El Deseado” Prince of Spain forced into captivity by Napoleon. Many of Spanish America’s revolutions were done in his name. Juntas formed under the auspices of ruling for him while he was in captivity, though this was often a guise.
  17. Francisco de Miranda
    “the precursor” Radical Venezuelan who leads the first revolts for independence there. After traveling around Europe and being exposed to the radical Enlightenment there (especially during the French Revolution) he returned to Venezuela and stages the revolts. He was eventually captured and kept imprisoned by Spain until he died.
  18. Grito de Dolores
    September 16, 1810. Miguel Hidalgo reads a proclamation calling the indigenous people to rise up and throw off the yoke of the Spaniards. It had been intended to take place a few months later, but the conspiracy was discovered and had to be implemented early.
  19. Inconfidencia Mineira
    unsuccessful Brazilian independence movement, 1789.
  20. Intendant System
  21. "Jamaica Letter"
  22. Jesuit Reductions in Paraguay
  23. Jorge Juan
  24. José Antonio de Areche
  25. José Antonio Páez
    Caudillo in eastern Venezuela, mulatto. Fought under Bolivar, later made governor of Venezuela. His desire for greater control there was partly responsible for the breakup of Gran Colombia.
  26. José de Abascal
  27. José de Galvez
    Visitador and later viceroy of Mexico. Father of many of the Bourbon reforms there.
  28. José de San Martin
    Argentine patriot who led the liberation of Chile and Lima.
  29. José de Sucre
    Bolivar’s most trusted general. Leads the troops during the battle of Ayacucho and during the liberation of Upper Peru, for which he is made first president of Bolivia (whose capital is now named for him)
  30. José Fernando Abascal
  31. José Gervasio Artigas
    Uruguayan criminal-turned patriot. Considered Uruguay’s founding father
  32. José María Morelos y Pavón
    Mexican rebel leader. Priest, mulatto, commoner
  33. José Miguel Carrera
  34. Joseph Bonaparte
  35. Juan José Castelli
  36. Juan Santos Atahualpa
  37. Manuel de Godoy
  38. Mariano Moreno
  39. Marquis of Pombal
  40. Miguel Hidalgo
  41. Minas Gerais
  42. Navíos de registro
  43. Noticias secretas
  44. Philip V
  45. Plan of Iguala
  46. Proclamation of comercio libre
  47. Santiago Liniers
  48. Simón Bolívar
  49. Sub*
  50. Three Guarantees
  51. Tiradentes
  52. Tomas Catari
  53. Treaty of Madrid (1750)
  54. Treaty of Methuen
  55. Treaty of Utrecht
  56. Tupac Amaru II
  57. Tupac Catari
  58. Vicente Guerrero
  59. Viceroyalty of La Plata
  60. Viceroyalty of New Granada
  61. War of Jenkins' Ear
  62. War of Spanish Succession
Card Set
Hist 251
cards about latin american conquest
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