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How was work viewed in the pre industrialization era?
Work = Life
How as work viewed in the post industrialization era?
Work = Done quickly so we can enjoy life
How is work viewed today?
Life = No work, work and family are competing.
What are 4 ways to motivate children in regards to work?
- Don't start too early or too late with teaching children to do housework.
- Choose chores wisely.
- Work together.
- Be flexible.
- Praise and criticize appropriately.
Should children be paid to do work?
It is up in the air.
How much is housework said to be valued at annually?
Why is housework valuable to families? (3 things)
- It links people together.
- It opens communication.
- Children can learn values.
Why is housework endangered? (4 things)
- Hectic lifestyles.
- Easier technology/styles of living.
- Emphasis on doing something real.
- Housework is becoming separate from family work.
What are 7 factors that influence the family from work outside the home?
- Amount of time/energy spent working.
- Location/type of work.
- Emotional climate.
- Family friendly policies.
What are 7 ways to manage rules effectively?
- Be adaptable.
- Think sequences.
- Rethink inappropriate rules.
- Attack disabling rules.
- Using levels of abstraction.
- Maintain rule implicitness.
- Relationships vs. rules
Implicit rules, what are some characteristics?
- Hidden, not discussed or acknowledged.
- Never questioned.
- They are the way things are.
- Not changeable until recognized.
- Invisibility makes them powerful.
Explicit rules, what are some characteristics?
- Usually talked about.
- Recognized and acknowledged.
- General guidelines that applie forever until formally attended to.
What is the purpose of normative rules?
To maintain regular stability and form boundaries.
True or False: There are a wide range of social norms, ranging from less serious to very serious.
What is a folkway?
Behavior that is preferred but somewhat optional.
What are social mores?
Behavior considered important (membership counting on adherence)
What are social laws?
Behavior considered important enough to be acted on and formally written and enforced.
True or False: Most normative rules arise without notice - and have a curious power to direct and dictate how we act.
What is a social norm?
Beliefs that exist in a culture that encourage some things and frown upon others.
Rules coming from social norms = a source of stress for families. 3 Examples.
- Family members can perceive rules differently.
- Family members can introduce new rules conflicting with old ones.
- Family members social norms often equate with moral issues (not equivalent)
What are the 4 types of parenting in Baumrind's parenting model?
What are the 4 ways that normative rules emerge in families?
- Family of Origin
- Interaction: trial and error situations
- Acquired from culture - social norms (TV, movies, everybody is doing it)
What are 4 similarities between rituals and routines?
- Involves more than one.
- Overt behavior or action.
- Continuity as well as change (morphogenesis vs. morphostasis)
What are 4 differences between rituals and routines?
- Amount of emotion involved.
- Rituals = more symbols
- Rituals = more unusual and extraordinary in behavior
- Rituals = prepartion and follow up activities
How are rituals and routines created?
- Part of cultural heritage/family heritage.
- Families create/invent their own.
What are the 7 ways that traditions help families?
- Help create healthy emotional ties.
- Help acknowledge membership changes.
- Help with healing.
- Help in defining and redefining identity.
- Help with rites of passage.
- Help find meaning and purpose.
- Help create order and predictability.
How do traditions help create healthy emotional ties?
- Encourages contact
- sense of unity/create memories
- Bridge generational gaps
- Creates togetherness/bonding
- Sense of home
- Sense world is a good place/comfort zone
How do traditions help acknowledge membership changes?
- Major events = membership changes.
- Assimilate new members
- Acknowledge creation of new unit.
- Cope with death
How do traditons help with healing?
- After conflict
- After big changes
How do traditions help in defining and redefining identity?
- Transforms identities
- Cultural traditions
- Reassures identities
- Builds emotional ties
How do traditions help with rites of passage?
Signify responsibility, duty, and behavior change.
How do traditions help find meaning and purpose?
- Traditions help by being a tangivle event to celebrate deeply held beliefs.
- General or religious beliefs.
How do traditions help create order and predictability?
- Sense of home
- Sense of order
- After trauma - major therapeutic device
What is equifinality?
Many beginnings can lead to the same outcome and the same beginning can lead to quite different outcomes.
What is epigenesis?
What is done in earlier transtions/stages tends to influence what can be/tends to be done in later transitions/stages.
What is anticipatory socialization?
Helping people learn ahead of time what will be expected of them in different roles.
What are 7 healthy coping strategies for stress?
- Recognize that stress is temporary.
- Work together on solutions
- Develop new rules for prioritizing
- Expect some stress - it is normal
- Feel good about solutions and about themselves
- Use prior stress experiences
- Distinguish between stress you can and cannot control
What is morphostasis?
Wanting to stay the same
What is morphogenesis?
What are 3 stages of a family crisis?
- Crisis will involve necessary change
- Crisis is a turning point
- Crisis is a time of relative instability
What is the 3 step pattern of family crisis?
- The event that causes the crisis will occur.
- The period of disorganization.
What are 4 factors that lead to less satisfactory marriages?
- Premarital sex
- Premarital pregnancy
What things could be asked in a premarital test?
- Division of roles
- In laws
- Conflict resolution
Research has shown that 5 things should be seen as forewarning of marital trouble. What are the 5 things?
- One/both parents are unhappy
- Married at an early age
- Married impulsively
- Low income/financial problems
- One/both have psychological problems
What are 8 generalizations about discipline?
- Concept of discipline is largely misunderstood.
- Discipline is teaching appropriate behavior.
- Control impulses and learn to reason before acting.
- Positive, reasonable, and temperate.
- Age and developmental level.
- Understanding of individual needs and problems.
- Provides structure and rules.
- Needs to be delivered consistently.
What are some basic things we went over with love and families?
- Love is an assumed part of family.
- Two words go together.
- Child learns to define love - good or bad.
- Child learns how to feel worthy - still lovable.
- Child learns how to express love appropriately
- Child learns how to love others, love things, love life.
- Innate yearning for love and belonging.
What are 4 ways that the nature of children is viewed?
- Child = mini adult
- Child = evil
- Child = good
- Child = blank slate
What are 4 problems with studying family love?
- Not rational/ambiguous
- Patholigical emphasis
- Individual focus.
- Masculine bias
What are some factors to take into account with mother and father love?
- Differs between mothering and fathering.
- Differs in our definitions.
- Mothers = unconditional
- Fathers = conditional
- Lots of stereotypes
What are some of the views of men in parenting/love?
- Rough and tumble play.
- encouragers vs. Safety net.
- Teach emotional control.
- Work ethic and values.
- Hyper - masculinity plague
- Deficit paradigm of men
What are some later effects of early love being shown or not shown to children?
- Attachment theory
- Secure adults
- Anxious/ambivalent adults
- Avoidant adults.