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What is Quatitative Research? Give an example.
- Specific Behaciors - what kind of CP, was it fair
- Eaily tied to numbers
- conclusions based on statistical analyses
- more defined
- Advantage - more objective
What is Qualitative Research? Give an example.
- Observe in the natural setting or asking about the natural settings
- describing behavior in words - no statistics
- Conslustions based on interpretatiosn
- settings: school, home, playground
- Why - more detail
What is naturalistic observation?
- Researcher makes observations in a natural setting (the child's school, home, playground) over an extended period of time.
- Sometimes "participant observation"
- Usually Qualitative
- Advantage - help get a sense of what is nomral in a child's life
What are the steps of naturalistic observation?
- 1. describe the setting
- 2. describe the event
- 3. describe the person's observed in the setting
- 4. Interpret what was observed
Discuss the issues around participant observation and concealment.
Helpful to conceal but ethical issues and observer may loose objectivity
What are the limits of the naturalist observation?
- Conditions change over time
- Cause the behavior to change - you don't know if it is natural or if the environment had a hand in the change of behavior
- Expensive $$$$$
- Helps to observe a complex environment
What is systematic observation?
- Careful observation of one or more specific behaviors in a particular setting
- Observations are quatifiable
- Researchers have developed prior hypothesis about the behaviors
What is a coding system
Descriptions of the bahviors and ratings used to describe an observation
What are the methodoligical issues in systematic observation?
- Equipment: Video camaras
- Reactivity: Possibility that the presence of the observer will affect the people's behavior's (one-way mirror)
- Inter-rater reliabiltiy must be established
- Sampling of behaviors: how long do you observe.
- Better to have more BUT it is $$$ and time consuming
What is a case study and what is it used?
- A rich description of an individual
- Usually a person, but someimes a settign
- Insights gained this way
- Can lead to a hypothesis that can be tested using other methods
- Done in a very unique observation or a rare condition
- A qualitative study