Introduction to Child Psychology (PSYC 2700) Final Exam

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jhl2011
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Introduction to Child Psychology (PSYC 2700) Final Exam
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2011-12-09 19:37:39
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introduction child psychology uva university virginia bonvillian psyc 2700
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Vocabulary for all textbook readings for the final exam. PSYC 2700 - Introduction to Child Psychology, Professor John Bonvillian (UVA)
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  1. vicarious reinforcement
    observing someone else receuve a reward or punishment
  2. reciprocal determinism
    Albert Bandura's concept that child-environment influences operate in both directions (children are affected by aspects of their environment, but they also influence their environment
  3. perceived self-efficacy
    an individual's beliefs about how effectively he or she can control his or her own behavior, thoughts, and emotions in order to achieve a desired goal
  4. self-socialization
    the idea that children play a very active role in their own socialization thorugh their activity preferences, friendship choices, and so on
  5. role taking
    being aware of the perspective of another person, thereby better understanding that person's behavior, thoughts and feelings
  6. Robert Selman
    • psychologist who focused on development of role taking in children
    • proposed that role taking is essential to understand another person's thoguhts, feelings or motives (theory of mind)
  7. Selman's Theory of Role Taking
    • before the age of 6, children are incapable or role taking (similar to Piaget's ideas of egocentrism)
    • Stage 1 (6-8): realize that other people have different perspectives, but assume that it is simply because they do not have the same information
    • Stage 2 (8-10): able to think about another person's point of view
    • Stage 3 (10-12): able to compare their point of view with that of another person, or act as a 3rd party and assess the 2 points of view from a removed perspective
    • Stage 4 (12+): compare another person's perspective to a "generlized" view, i.e. does this person think the same way as everyone else
  8. hostile attributional bias
    Kenneth Dodge's theory that children have a tendency to assume that other people's ambiguous actions stem from a hostile intent
  9. entity/helpless orientation
    a general tendency to attribute success and failure to enduring aspects of the self and to give up in the face of failure
  10. incremental/mastery orientation
    a general tendency to attribute success and failure to the amount of effort expended and to persist in the face of failure
  11. entity theory
    a theory that a person's level of intelligence is fixed and unchangeable
  12. incremental theory
    a theory that a person's intelligence can grow as a function of experience
  13. sexual orientation
    a person's preference in regard to males or females as objects of erotic feelings
  14. sexual-minority youth
    young people who experience same-sex attractions and for whom the question of personal sexual identity is often confusing and painful
  15. assertion
    the tendency to take action on behalf of the self through competitive, independent, or aggressive behaviors
  16. affiliation
    the tendency to affirm connection with others through being emotionally open, empathetic, or cooperative
  17. collaboration
    a blending of the assertion (aggressive) and afiiliation (passive) styles of behavior; associated with gender-role flexibility, it is more common among girls than boys
  18. Evolutionary Psychology Theory
    Theory that certain gender differences in behavior developed as a result of reproductive advantages
  19. Biosocial Theory
    Theory that differences in physical abilities of men and women gave rise to differences in gender development
  20. androgens
    a class of hormones that normally occur at higher levels in males than in females and tat affect te physical development and functioning from the prenatal period onward
  21. congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
    a condition in which the adrenal glands produce high levels of hormones that have androgen-like effects
  22. organizational hormonal influences
    the potential result of certain sex-linked hormones affecting brain differentiation and organization during prenatal development or at puberty
  23. activational hormonal influences
    the potential result of certain fluctuations in sex-linked hormone levels affecting the contemporaneous activation of certain brain and behavioral responses
  24. gender self-socialization
    the process through which children's biases to behave in accord with their gender identity is strengthened by their greater attention to and involvement with entities and activitives deemed appropriate to their gender
  25. Lawrence Kohlberg
    developed a cognitive developmental theory of gender-role development based on Piagetian ideas; children gather information about gender in a similar fashion to gathering information about the physical world
  26. gender identity
    awarenss of one's own gender
  27. gender stability
    awareness that gender is stable over time
  28. gender constancy
    the realization that gender is invariant despite superficial changes in a person's apperance or behavior
  29. gender schemas
    organized mental representations (concepts, beliefs, memories) about gender, including gender stereotypes
  30. ingroup bias
    tendency to evaluate individuals and characteristics of the ingroup as superior to thos of the outgroup
  31. in-group assimilation
    process whereby individuals are socialized to conform to the group's norms, demonstrating the characteristics that define the ingroup
  32. tuition
    learning about gender through direct teaching
  33. enactive experience
    learning about gender through experiencing the reactions one's behavior invokes in others
  34. opportunity structure
    the economic resources offered by the macrosystem in Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, and people's understanding of those resources
  35. gender segregation
    childen's tendency to associate with same-gender peers and avoid other-gender peers
  36. gender-role intensification
    refers to heightened concerns with adhering to traditional gender roles
  37. gender-role flexibility
    refers to advances in cognitive development that can allow adolescents (more often girls than boys) to transcend traditional conventions and pursue a more flexible range of interests
  38. menarche
    the onset of menstruation
  39. spermarche
    the onset of males' capacity to ejaculate
  40. body image
    an individual's perception of, and feelings about, his or her own body
  41. adrenarche
    the period, prior to the emergence of visible signs of puberty, during which the adrenal glands mature, providing a major source of sex steriods. This period corrleates with the onset of sexual attraction
  42. phonemic awareness
    ability to identify component sounds within words
  43. phonological recoding skills
    ability to translate letters into sounds and to blend sounds into words
  44. theory of successful intelligence
    Sternberg's theory of intellect, based on the view that intelligence is the ability to achieve success in life
  45. visually baed retrieval
    proceeding direcly from the visual form of a word to its meaning
  46. strategy-choice process
    procedure for selecting among alternative ways of solving problems
  47. dyslexia
    inability to read well despite normal intelligence
  48. phonological processing
    ability to discriminate and remember sounds within words
  49. mental model
    processes used to represent a situation or sequence of events
  50. comprehension monitoring
    the process of keeping track of one's understanding of a verbal description or text
  51. gesture-speech mismatches
    a phenomenom in which hand movements and verbal statements convey different ideas
  52. survival of offspring
    a function of the family that pertains to ensuring the survivial of offspring by providing for their needs
  53. economic function
    a function of the family that pertains to providing the means for children to acquire the skills and other resources they need to be economically productive adults
  54. cultural training
    a function of the family that pertains to teaching children the basic values in their culture
  55. family dynamics
    the way in which the family operates as a while
  56. parenting styles
    parenting behaviors and attitudes that set the emotional climate in regard to parent-child interactions, such as parental responsiveness and demandingness

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