BIOL 223 Final-Deck 4
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What part of the long bone allows bone growth?
The neck of a long bone is known as the:
The shaft of a long bone is known as the:
The cartilage on either end of a long bone is specifically known as:
articular (hyaline) cartilage
Outer fibrous tissue layer of bone is known as:
The inner fibrous tissue layer of bone is known as:
Where in a long bone is the marrow located?
the medullary cavity
Compact bone is comprised of repeating circular units called:
At the center of the repeating compact bone units is a:
The layers of bone matrix in compact bone are called:
List the three types of lamellae.
- concentric - around haversion canals
- interstitial - between osteons
- circumferential - outer rings of bone
The holes in compact bone where the osteocyte lives is called a:
What connects two vertical haversion canals together?
What type of protein fibers will be found in bone tissue, and what would happen to bone without them?
collagen fibers, it would be brittle and shatter
What are the two primary mineral components in bone, and what do they combine to form?
- calcium phosphate
- calcium hydroxide
What would happen to bone if you removed the mineral component?
to would be too flexible to be structurally supportive
What do osteoclasts release?
lysosomal enzymes and acids
Which bone cells can divide?
What is the difference between calcification and ossification?
- calcification - deposition of calcium salts
- ossification - turning or converting an existing tissue into bone
Define resporption and deposition.
- resorption - breaks down Ca2+ and sends it to the blood
- deposition - deposits Ca2+ from the blood into the bone (performed by osteoclasts)
What hormone will your body synthesize if you have high blood calcium?
Parathyroid hormone will be secreted when blood calcium levels are _______ and will have a stimulatory effect on _______ activity.
How is information transmitted across and electrical synapse?
by means of gap junctions (faster, more syncronized)
The difference in charges across the cell membrane, due to ion movement across the membrane called _______, is refered to as _______.
What is the charge along the inside of the cell membrane? How about the outside?
- inside - negative
- outside - positive
List the chemical, electrochemical, and electrical gradients for sodium.
- chemical - towards the inside
- electrochemical - large force towards the inside
- electrical - towards the inside
List the chemical, electrochemical, and electrical gradients for potassium.
- chemical - towards the outside
- electrochemical - towards the outside
- electrical - towards the inside
List the equilibrium potentials for sodium and potassium.
- sodium = +66mV
- potassium = -90mV
What type of ion movement will cause depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization respectively.
- depolarization - influx of sodium ions (-70mV to +20mV)
- repolarization - outflux of potassium (+20mV to -70mV)
- hyperpolarization - excess K+ outflux (-70mV to -90mV)
List the five events of the action potential graph.
- ligand gated Na+ channels open (brings to threshold)
- voltage gated Na+ channels open (depolarization)
- at +20mV, voltage gated Na+ close
- Voltage gated K+ channels open (repolarization)
- Volatge gated K+ close
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