BIOL 223 Final-Deck 4

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Author:
christophertkennedy
ID:
122278
Filename:
BIOL 223 Final-Deck 4
Updated:
2011-12-12 13:45:38
Tags:
anatomy physiology BIOL 223
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Study Cards for Final Exam BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. What part of the long bone allows bone growth?
    epiphysis
  2. The neck of a long bone is known as the:
    metaphysis
  3. The shaft of a long bone is known as the:
    diaphysis
  4. The cartilage on either end of a long bone is specifically known as:
    articular (hyaline) cartilage
  5. Outer fibrous tissue layer of bone is known as:
    periosteum
  6. The inner fibrous tissue layer of bone is known as:
    endosteum
  7. Where in a long bone is the marrow located?
    the medullary cavity
  8. Compact bone is comprised of repeating circular units called:
    osteons
  9. At the center of the repeating compact bone units is a:
    haversion canal
  10. The layers of bone matrix in compact bone are called:
    lamellae
  11. List the three types of lamellae.
    • concentric - around haversion canals
    • interstitial - between osteons
    • circumferential - outer rings of bone
  12. The holes in compact bone where the osteocyte lives is called a:
    lacunae
  13. What connects two vertical haversion canals together?
    Volkmann's canals
  14. What type of protein fibers will be found in bone tissue, and what would happen to bone without them?
    collagen fibers, it would be brittle and shatter
  15. What are the two primary mineral components in bone, and what do they combine to form?
    • calcium phosphate
    • calcium hydroxide
    • hydroxyapatite
  16. What would happen to bone if you removed the mineral component?
    to would be too flexible to be structurally supportive
  17. What do osteoclasts release?
    lysosomal enzymes and acids
  18. Which bone cells can divide?
    osteoprogenitor cells
  19. What is the difference between calcification and ossification?
    • calcification - deposition of calcium salts
    • ossification - turning or converting an existing tissue into bone
  20. Define resporption and deposition.
    • resorption - breaks down Ca2+ and sends it to the blood
    • deposition - deposits Ca2+ from the blood into the bone (performed by osteoclasts)
  21. What hormone will your body synthesize if you have high blood calcium?
    calcitonin
  22. Parathyroid hormone will be secreted when blood calcium levels are _______ and will have a stimulatory effect on _______ activity.
    low, osteoclast
  23. How is information transmitted across and electrical synapse?
    by means of gap junctions (faster, more syncronized)
  24. The difference in charges across the cell membrane, due to ion movement across the membrane called _______, is refered to as _______.
    current, polarization
  25. What is the charge along the inside of the cell membrane? How about the outside?
    • inside - negative
    • outside - positive
  26. List the chemical, electrochemical, and electrical gradients for sodium.
    • chemical - towards the inside
    • electrochemical - large force towards the inside
    • electrical - towards the inside
  27. List the chemical, electrochemical, and electrical gradients for potassium.
    • chemical - towards the outside
    • electrochemical - towards the outside
    • electrical - towards the inside
  28. List the equilibrium potentials for sodium and potassium.
    • sodium = +66mV
    • potassium = -90mV
  29. What type of ion movement will cause depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization respectively.
    • depolarization - influx of sodium ions (-70mV to +20mV)
    • repolarization - outflux of potassium (+20mV to -70mV)
    • hyperpolarization - excess K+ outflux (-70mV to -90mV)
  30. List the five events of the action potential graph.
    • ligand gated Na+ channels open (brings to threshold)
    • voltage gated Na+ channels open (depolarization)
    • at +20mV, voltage gated Na+ close
    • Voltage gated K+ channels open (repolarization)
    • Volatge gated K+ close

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