Med. Term Ch 14

Card Set Information

Med. Term Ch 14
2011-12-09 19:39:27
Nervous System

Nervous System
Show Answers:

  1. afferent
    carry or move inward or toward a central structure
  2. blood-brain barrier
    protective mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering delicate brain tissue
  3. central nervous system (CNS)
    network of nervous tissue found in the brain and spinal cord
  4. efferent
    carry or move away from a central structure
  5. nerve fiber
    projection of a neuron, especially the axon that transmits impulses
  6. neurilemma
    additional sheath external to myelin that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
  7. ventricle
    chamber or cavity of an organ that receives or holds a fluid
  8. cerebr/o
  9. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  10. dendr/o
  11. encephal/o
  12. gangli/o
    ganglion (knot or knotlike mass)
  13. gli/o
    glue; neuroglial tissue
  14. kinesi/o
  15. lept/o
    thin, slender
  16. lex/o
    word, phrase
  17. mening/o
    meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
  18. myel/o
    bone marrow; spinal cord
  19. narc/o
    stupor; numbness; sleep
  20. neur/o
  21. radiculo/o
    nerve roots
  22. sthen/o
  23. thalam/o
  24. thec/o
    sheath (usually refers to meninges)
  25. ton/o
  26. ventricul/o
    ventricle (of heart or brain)
  27. -algesia
  28. -asthenia
    weakness, debility
  29. -esthesia
  30. -kinesia
  31. -lepsy
  32. -paresis
    partial paralysis
  33. -phasia
  34. -;legia
  35. -taxia
    order, coordination
  36. pachy-
  37. para-
    near, beside; beyond
  38. syn-
    union, together, joined
  39. affective disorder
    psychological disorder in which the major characteristic is an abnormal mood, usually mania or depression
  40. anorexia nervosa
    eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain adequate weight for age and height, and an all-consuming desire to remain thin
  41. anxiety
    psychological "worry" disorder characterized by excessive pondering or thinking "what if..."
  42. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    disorder affecting children and adults characterized by impulsiveness, overactivity, and the inability to remain focused on a task
  43. bipolar disorder
    mental disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, emotion, energy, and ability to function; also called manic-depressive illness
  44. bulimia nervosa
    eating disorder characterized by binging (overeating) and purging
  45. depression
    mood disorder assoc. with sadness, despair, discouragement, and, commonly, feelings of low self-esteem, guilt, and withdrawal
  46. mania
    mood disorder characterized by mental and physical hyperactivity, disorganized behavior, and excessively elevated mood
  47. panic attack
    sudden, intense, overwhelming feeling of fear that comes without warning and is not attributabel to any immediate danger
  48. agnosia
    inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory, or other sensations even though the sensory sphere is intact
  49. asthenia
    weakness, debility, or loss of strength
  50. ataxia
    lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
  51. aura
    premonitory awareness of an approaching physical or mental disorder; peculiar sensation that precedes seizures
  52. autism
    developmental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and an abnormal absorption in fantasy, usually accompanied by an inability to communicate even on a basic level
  53. closed head trauma
    injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed
  54. coma
    abnormally deep unconsciousness with absence of voluntary response to stimuli
  55. concussion
    injury to the brain, occasionally with transient loss of consciousness as a result of injury or traum to the head
  56. convulsion
    any sudden and violent contraction of one or more muscles
  57. dementia
    broad term that refers to cognitive deficit, including memory impairment
  58. dylexia
    inability to learn and process written language despite adequate intelligence, sensory abiloity, and exposure
  59. Guillain-Barre syndrome
    autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response and sudden muscle weakness
  60. herpes zoster
    painful, acute infectious disease of the posterior root ganglia of only a few segments of the spinal or cranial nerves; also called shingles
  61. huntington chorea
    inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances, and mental deterioration
  62. hydrocephalus
    accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain, causing increased intracranial pressure (ICP), thinning of brain tissue, and seperation of cranial bones
  63. lethargy
    abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli; also called sluggishness
  64. neurosis
    nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feelings of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior
  65. palsy
    • paralysis, usually partial, and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or controlled tremor
    • -facial pralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve, associated with herpes virus
    • -type of pralysis that affects movement and body position and, sometimes, speech and learning ability
  66. paralysis
    • loss of voluntary motion in one or more muscle groups with or without loss of sensation
    • -paralysis of one side of the body, typically as the result of a stroke; also called unilateral paralysis
    • -paralysis of both lower limbs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord
    • -paralysis of both arms and legs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the upper spinal cord
  67. psychosis
    major emotiona disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the individual is inapable of meeting challenges of daily life
  68. spina bifida
    • defect in which the neural tube (tissue that forms the brain and spinal cord in the fetus) fails to close during embryogenesis
    • -form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude through the spine
    • -most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine
    • -form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebrae are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin
  69. paresthesia
    sensation of numbness, prickling, tingling, or heightened sensitivity
  70. poliomyelitis
    inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spianl and muscle deformity and paralysis
  71. Reye syndrome
    acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the brain, liver and, possibly, heart kidney, spleen, and lymph nodes
  72. sciatica
    severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve felt at the base of the spine, down the thigh, and radiating downt the leg due to a compressed nerve
  73. syncope
    temporary loss of consciousness due to the sudden decline of blood flow to the brain; also falled fainting
  74. tonic-clonic seizure
    general type of seizure characterized by the loss of consciousness and stiffening of the body (tonic phase) followed by rhythmic, jerking movements (clonic phase)
  75. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    temporarty interference with blood supply to the brain lasting from a few minutes to a few hours
  76. electoencephalography (EEG)
    recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses
  77. electomyography (EMG)
    recording of electrical signals (action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess nerve damage
  78. lumbar puncture
    needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids (such as radiopaque substances) to be injected; also called spinal puncture and spinal tap
  79. nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
    test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve
  80. cerbrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis
    series of chemical, microscopic, and microbial tests used to diagnose disorders of the CNS, including viral and bacterial infections, tumors, and hemmorrhage
  81. angiography
    • radiography of the blood vessels after introduction of a contrast medium
    • -angiography of blood vessels of the brain after injection of a contrast medium; also called cerebral anteriography
  82. myelography
    diagnostic and radiological examination of the spinal canal, nerve roots, and spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium into the spinal canal
  83. positron emission tomography (PET)
    scan using computed tomography to record the positrons (poitively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and produce a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease
  84. echoencephalography
    ultrasound technique used to study intracraial structures of the brain and conditions that cause a shift in the midline structure of the brain
  85. cryosurgery
    technique that exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it
  86. stereotaxic radiosurgery
    precise method of locating and destorying sharply circumscribed lesions on specific, tiny areas of pathological tissue in deep-seated structures of the CNS; also called stereotaxy or stereotactic surgery
  87. thalamotomy
    partial destruction the thalamus to treat intractable pain, involuntary movements, or emotional disturbances
  88. tractotomy
    transection of a nerve tract in the brainstem or spinal cord
  89. trephination
    technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure
  90. vagotomy
    interruption of the function of the vagus nerve to relieve peptic ulver
  91. anesthetic
    • produce partial or complete loss of sensation, whith or without loss of consciousness
    • -act upon the brain to produce a complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness
    • -act upon nerves or nerve tracts to affect a local area only
  92. anticonvulsants
    prevent uncrontrolled neuron activity assocaited with seizures by altering electrical transmission along neurons or alterint he chemical composition of neurotransmitters; also called antiepileptics
  93. antiparkinsonian agents
    control tremors and muscle rigitiy associated with parkinson disease by increasing dopamine in the brain
  94. antipsychotics
    treat psychosis, paranoia, and schizophrenia by altering chemicals in the brain, including the limbic system (group of brain structures), wich controls emotions
  95. antidepressants
    treat multiple symptoms of depression by increasing levels of specific neurotransmitters
  96. hypnotics
    depress CNS functions, promote sedation and sleep, and relieve agitation, anxiousness, and restlessness
  97. psychostimulants
    reduce impulsive behavior by increasing the level of neurotransmitters