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the study of drugs on humans
any chemical that can affect living processes
the study of drugs and their interactions with living systems
a drug that elicits only the response for which it is given
selectivity (as it applies to a drug’s effects)
an effect that a drug may have that was not intended
side effect(s) (of a drug)
Name the 11 rights of drug administration
- Right medication
- Right dose
- Right time
- Right route
- Right client
- Right client education
- Right documentation
- Right to refuse
- Right assessment
- Right evaluation
- Right Circumstance
the use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy
Before giving the drug
What are the 3 basic goals of Preadmission assessment
- Collect baseline data
- Identify the at-risk patients
- Assess patient capacity for self-care
compliance or the extent to which a patient’s behavior coincides with medical advice. IS ESSENTIAL!
collecting data about the patient, patient interview, medical and drug-use history, physical examination, observation of the patient and Lab tests.
the nurse analyses the database to determine actual and potential health problems. Nursing Diagnosis.
the nurse delineates specific interventions directed at solving or preventing the problems identified in analysis.
begins with carrying out the interventions identified during planning
performed to determine the degree to which treatment was successful.
constitutes a description of a drug using the nomenclature of chemistry
chemical name (of drug)
is assigned by the United States Adopted Names Council. Preferable name to be used.
generic name (of drug)
It is what is needed to move on to phase 4 of new drug development.
new drug application (NDA)
3 CYP families of liver enzymes responsible for drug metabolism
cytochrome P450 system
the movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood
What are the 2 purposes of enteric-coated drugs?
- to protect drugs from acid and pepsin in the stomach
- protect stomach from drugs that can cause gastric discomfort
a cycle in which drugs in the liver are taken up into the bile, secreted back into the small intestine (by the bile duct), and then reabsorbed back into the portal blood.
removal of the drug out of the body
How can Drugs can be excreted?
by bile, urine, sweat, saliva, breast milk, and MOST importantly KIDNEY.
If client is back from surgery and is not to full renal function, how can you promote a client to excrete anesthetic medication?
Have them do deep breathing: rational – with help excrete anesthetics.
How are most drugs excreted?
refers to the rapid hepatic inactivation of certain oral drugs
the time required for the amount of drug in the body to decrease by 50%
attracted to water
repels away from water (usually lipids)
process of stimulating enzyme synthesis (can have 2 positive effects, stimulates the liver to produce more enzymes, AND accelerate the metabolism)
induction of drug metabolism
strong attraction of lipids.
smaller doses of drugs than a maintenance dose AND It is how the plateau can be maintained
- maintenance dose
- enzymatic alteration of drug structure
- Metabolism (Most drug metabolism occurs in the liver
- minimum effective concentration (of drug in plasma or blood) – MEC AND the plasma drug level below which therapeutic effects will not occur AND for a drug to be beneficial it must reach at least the MEC)
injected AND skips the absorption stage of pharmacokinetics
- it is the study of drug movement throughout the body
- steady drug level
- plateau of drug effect or plasma/blood level (when the amount of drug eliminated between doses equals the dose administered, average drug levels will remain constant and plateau will have been reached AND It usually takes 4 half-lives to achieve the Plateau)
molecule has a positive or negative charge AND must polar to be excreted
Neutral charge molecule AND cannot be excreted
- a compound that is pharmacologically inactive as administered and then undergoes conversion to its active form within the body
- makes a drug active inside the body, that was inactive outside the body
- a molecule that contain at least one atom of nitrogen and carry a positive charge at all times therapeutic range (of drug concentration in plasma or blood)
movement of the drug from its site of administration into the blood
absorption (determines how soon the effects will begin AND the amount of absorption helps determine how intense effects will be)
% of drug absorbed and available to use AND can vary from person to person
- The property of when two drugs have identical active ingredients or 2 different dosage forms of the same drug processes similar bioavailability and produce the same effect at the site of the physiological activity
a drug is attached to albumin to be transported to its destination.
- bound drug (Cannot leave blood stream if bound to albumin! Albumin is too large to pass through capillary walls)
- a drug not attached to albumin an is available for use or is able to pass through capillary walls
- unbound, or “free"