Micro 2 final

Card Set Information

Author:
bbeckers88
ID:
122299
Filename:
Micro 2 final
Updated:
2011-12-10 18:10:37
Tags:
micro final
Folders:

Description:
micro 2 final
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user bbeckers88 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. hepatitis
    • 5 different viruses causing liver disease
    • viruses are resistant to low pH, organic solvents and detergents
  2. characteristics of Hep A
    • picornavirus
    • causes infectious hepatitis
  3. epidemiology of Hep A
    • fecal-oral transmission
    • 40-50% of total hep cases
    • only 1 HAV serotype
    • humans are the only resovoir, mainly children
  4. pathology of Hep A
    • intestines-> blood-> liver
    • 15-40 day incubation -> symptoms (fever, jaundice, headache, vomitting, liver inflammation, pain)
    • 99% complete recover in 8-12 weeks
  5. control of Hep A
    • sanitation
    • chlorinate water
    • killed virus vaccine for at risk individuals
  6. characteristics of Hep B
    • hepadnavirus (DNA)
    • serup hep
    • HBV virons called Dane particles
    • eight subtypes
  7. replication of Hep B
    • partial dsDNA genome
    • enters blood, finishes dsDNA
    • mRNA-> reverse transcriptase-> DNA-> RNA degrades leaving partial dsDNA
  8. epidemiology of Hep B
    spread by body fluids, injections, and pregnancy
  9. pathology of Hep B
    • 50-180 day incubation
    • symptoms: jaundice, fatigue, pain, decreased appetite, nausea, vomitting, joint pain
    • 2% fatality rate
    • strong cell mediated immunity = self-limitting
    • weak immunity= chronic hepatitis
  10. control of Hep B
    • avoid blood
    • active immunizations made in yeast
    • passive immunizations of immune globulin
  11. characteristics of Hep C
    flavivirus-> causes non-A, non-B hep
  12. epidemiology of Hep C
    • reservoirs= human and chimps
    • causes post transfusion hep
    • transmission via body fluids
    • male-> female > male -> male
  13. pathology of Hep C
    • blood-> hepatocytes
    • persistant infection= chronic disease
    • 6-7 week incubation -> symptoms (jaundice, pain, nausea, dark urine)
    • virus cleared 15-25% of the time in 4-6 months
  14. treatment of Hep C
    ribavirin and interferon- removes HCV RNA from blood 70% of the time
  15. Hep D (delta)
    • cant code for surface protein-> HBV helper virus
    • intravenous drug useres are #1 infected, then sex
    • must be aquired with HBV or in someone who already has HBV
  16. Hep E
    • small, round, +SS RNA, naked
    • enteric non-a, non-b hep
    • fecal-oral transmission
    • not usually person to person
  17. Hep E pathology
    • 16-60 day incubation
    • jaundice, malaise, pain, nausea
    • no chronic infection
  18. influenza
    • orthomyxovirus family cuasing acute infection
    • enveloped, ss RNA of 8 fragments
    • internal antigens are type specific
  19. 3 types of influenza virus
    • influenza A- humans and animals
    • influenza B- humans only
    • influenza C- humans only
  20. what types are usually the major outbreaks of influenza
    A or B, B is usually a milder form
  21. viral envelop of A influenza virus
    external antigens (HA and NA) are strain specific and have much variation
  22. antigenic drift
    • from mutation
    • takes years for major change
  23. antigenic shift
    • reassortment of influenza A antigens
    • little immunity= apidemic/pandemic
    • 16 HA and 9 NA found in ducks
  24. epidemiology of influenza
    • aerosols from person to person
    • 24-48 hour incubation
    • fatalities in the elderly and children
  25. pulmonary complications of influenza
    • croup in kids
    • primary influenza virus pneumonia
    • secondary bacterial infection
  26. pathology of influenza
    • respiratroy cells die causing decreased ciliary clearance
    • symptoms: fever, myalgia, headache, ocular symptoms, dry cough, nasal discharge
  27. severe complications associated with influenza
    Reye's syndrome- causes encephalitis in children, fatal 40% of the time, associated with asprin!
  28. treatment of influenza
    • amantadine- virus cant attach to cells
    • relenza and timiflue- no new virons realeased
  29. influenza vaccine
    • new annual vaccine against suspected strains
    • short-lived protection
  30. Guillain-Barre syndrome
    • complication of influenza vaccine
    • body attacks its nerves
    • happens 1/1,000,000 vaccinations
  31. picornavirdae
    • small, spherical, naked, +RNA
    • respiratory and GI
  32. enteroviruses
    • fecal-oral transmission
    • infect oral-pharyngeal mucosa and lymph tissue
    • usually asymptomatic
  33. types of enteroviruses
    • poliomyelitis
    • coxsackie virus
    • echovirus
  34. types of poliomyelitis
    • asymptomatic
    • abortive
    • non-paralytic
    • paralytic
  35. asymptomatic polio
    • 90% of infections
    • occurs when restriced to the GI tract
  36. abortive polio
    • 5% of infected individuals
    • fever in 1 week
    • general malaise with vomitting, headache, sorethroat
  37. non-paralytic polio
    • aseptic meningitis- virus in brain and meningies, stiff neck, vomitting
    • spontaneous recovery
  38. paralytic polio
    • 4 days after symptoms, virus from blood-> anterior horn -> motor cortex
    • different amounts of paralysis depending on areas of infection
  39. postpolio syndrome
    virus no longer present but further loss of affected muscles
  40. salk vaccine
    • for polio
    • formalin-killed wild-type virus injection
    • good humoral immunity
    • prevents virus from entering neurons
  41. sabin vaccine
    • for polio
    • live virus given orally
    • grows in gut, cant migrate to meurons
    • causes humoral and cell mediated response
  42. coxsackie virus
    • usually incorrectly diagnosed
    • type A and Type B
  43. Type A coxsackie virus
    • herpangina
    • hand, foot and mouth disease
    • hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
    • aseptic meningitis
  44. type B coxsackie virus
    • internal symptoms
    • localized internal lesions
    • meningitis, fever, and rashes
    • pleurodynia - the devils grip
    • myocarditis and pericarditis
  45. epidmeiology of type B coxsacki virus
    • fecal oral transmission
    • similar to polio
  46. echovirus= aka:
    human orphan virus
  47. echovirus causes:
    • aeptic meningitis
    • repiratory infection
    • gastroenteritis
    • skin rash
    • fever
  48. rhinovirus
    • can cause the common cold (1/3 of all colds)
    • 100+ serotypes
  49. epidemiology of the rhinovrus
    • aerosol transmission and fomites
    • infects the upper respiratory tract
  50. pathology of the rhinovirus
    • symptoms: discharge/blocked nasal passages, sneezing, sore throat
    • IgA in nasal secretions (#1), IgG in blood
    • immunity against particular serotype lasts 1-2 years
  51. Coronavirus
    • enveloped
    • causes common cold and SARS
  52. SARS
    • atypical pneumonia
    • person to person contact by aerosols
    • hand washing to prevent
    • days 2-7= dry cough
    • develops into pneumonia
  53. reoviruses
    • non enveloped
    • cause rotavirus
  54. rotavirus
    • 600,000-850,000 deaths/year
    • infects middle and upper intestinal villi= cell dysfunction and death causing watery diarrhea leading to dehydration and death
  55. rhabdovirdae
    • bullet shaped
    • causes rabies
  56. epidemiology of rabies
    • asia, africa, and the americas
    • transmitted by animal bite thru saliva
    • human to human transmission by corneal transplants
  57. pathology of rabies
    • binds to N or Ms cells via nicotinic Ach r/cs (remains 1 week - years, 30 day average)
    • nerves-> dorsal root ganglia/spinal cord-> brain-> encephalitis
    • prodone: itching, pain, fever, headach, GI
    • post-prodome: behavioral changes, hydrophobia (50%), seizures/hallucinations, then comatose, respiratory paralysis, death
  58. 2 forms of rabies in animals
    • Furious form: aggitation and aggresion followed by depression, paralysis and death
    • Dumb form: lethargic, depressed, and death
  59. diagnosis of rabies
    negri bodies (eosinophilic inclussions of aggregates of nuclocapsids in neurons)
  60. Control of rabies
    • vaccine
    • post-exposure prophylaxis
    • inactivated vaccine
    • HRIG (human rabies immunogolbulin) with vaccine
    • possibe preventative vaccine
  61. Arboviruses=
    Arthropod Borne
  62. what viruse are arboviruses
    • equine encephalitis virus
    • west nile virus
    • yellow fever
    • Dengue fever
    • Dengue hemorrhagic fever
  63. equine encephalitis virus
    • family togavirdae
    • resovoir: birds, small mammles, horses
    • transmission: mosquitoes
    • humans: dead end host with mild flue symptoms, more severe in children
  64. west nile virus
    • family flavivirdae
    • no symptoms in 75% of cases and mount immune attack
  65. epidemiology of west nile
    • resovoir: birds
    • transmission: mosquitoes
  66. pathology of west nile
    • symptoms: fever, ehadache, body aches, nausea, vomiting
    • 1/150 develop severe meningeoencephalitis
  67. yellow fever
    • family flavivirda
    • africa and south america
    • transmission: mosquitoes
  68. pathology of yellow fever
    • possible liver, kidney, and heart involvment
    • GI hemorrhage= bloody vomit
    • jaundice
    • delerium, seizures, coma
    • 5% mortality
  69. walter reed
    american army surgeon, proved mosquito transmission of yellow fever
  70. control of yellow fever
    • no treatment
    • eradicate mosquitoes
    • vaccine, live attenuated. 1 dose lasts 10 years
  71. dengue fever
    • family flavivrdae
    • caused by 4 different arboviruses
    • tropic and subtropic mosquitoes
    • self-limiting, uncomfortable but not fatal
  72. dengue hemorrhagic fever
    • family flavivridae
    • occurs when someone with immunity to 1 type of dengue is infected with another type
  73. hot viruses
    • benyavirdae
    • filoviruses
  74. bunyavirdae
    • enveloped
    • 250+
    • most are arthropod borne causing persistant non-lethal infections
  75. filoviruses
    • targets primates
    • viral hemorrhagic fevers: massive bleeding from every orafice
    • endemic to Africa
    • host: fruit bat?
    • 2 viruses: ebola, marburg
  76. retroviruses
    • enveoloped
    • reverse transvriptase
    • viral DNA into host DNA
  77. types of retroviruses
    • oncoviruses (HTLV-1 and 2)
    • Lentiviruses (HIV-1 and 2)
  78. HTLV-1
    • oncovirus
    • 1 in 25 infected develop cancer
    • transmission: sex, blood, baby
  79. HTLV-2
    • oncovirus
    • uncommon
    • hairy t cell leukemia
  80. Lentiviruses
    • SIV
    • HIV-1
    • HIV-2
  81. Simian Immunodeficiency viruses
    • affect primates
    • 18 SIVs infecting 20 primates
    • possible cause of HIV
  82. SIV cpz
    • chimps
    • most like HIV-1
    • chimps to humans?
  83. SIV sm
    • sooty mangabey
    • most like HIV-2
  84. HIV
    • 2 genetically and antigenetically different types
    • HIV-1: current pandemic
    • HIV-2: west africa
  85. HIV-1
    • 3 groups: M, N, and O
    • M group has 11 subtypes: A-K
  86. major type of HIV-1 in North America, latin america, caribbean, europe, japan, and australia?
    M-B
  87. type M-B HIV-1
    • transmitted best by MSM and blood
    • infects rectal mucosa
  88. Subtypes C and E HIV-1 M
    • in africa
    • transmitted heterosexually
    • infects langerhans cells in vagina, cervix, and penis
  89. HIV-2
    • 1986
    • causes AIDS more slowly than HIV-1
  90. origins of HIV/AIDS
    • HIV-1: west africa from SIV cpz to humans
    • earliest HIV case in Congo in 1959
  91. Other thought on HIV and AIDS
    HIV is an injustly maligned by-stander that is not the cause of the disease (AIDS)
  92. Koch's Postulates
    • 1. virtually all AIDS patients have HIV
    • 2. HIV isolated from virtually all AIDS patients and seropositive individules with early and late stage disease
    • 3. Accidentiliy HIV infected health care workers get AIDS
    • 4. HIV isolated from these people
  93. The River- Hooper
    HIV from simians to humans via oral polio vaccin in Africa in 1950s
  94. HIV-1 structure
    • enveloped
    • cone shapped capsid
    • Gp 120 interacts with CD4 r/c on T cells
  95. viral enzymes of HIV-1
    • reverse transcriptase: RNA to dsDNA
    • intigrase: dsDNA into host chromosome
    • Protease: cleaves -pol and -gag
  96. Transmission of HIV- sex
    • western countries: type M-B via MSM
    • asia/africa: type M-C via heterosexuals
    • 1/3 infected are women and commercial sex workers
  97. HIV transmission- contaminated blood
    • blood transfusion- 1985 screen for antibodies, 1992 ELISA
    • at risk: hemophiliacs, IV drug users, needle stick accidents
  98. HIV transmission: other risks
    • occupational
    • mother to child via birth or milk
    • not transmitted by saliva, mosquitoes, or ticks
  99. infection of HIV
    • sexual transmission: infects langerhans cells
    • spreads to lymph causing primary viremia (most infectious stage)
    • CD4 cells: memory cells-> active easily infected by HIV-1, die in a few days
    • -> resting cells act as resovior
  100. progression of HIV infection
    • 1. primary viremia
    • 2. primary symptoms
    • 3. individual variation
    • 4. adapted immune response
    • 5. latent phase
    • 6. dynamic equilibrium
    • 7. second phase of decay
    • 8. onset of AIDS
  101. primary viremia HIV
    • lots of cells infected
    • high titer in blood (days 4-11)
  102. primary symptoms HIV
    • flue-like or asymptomatic
    • fever, night sweats
    • 6 days- 6 months after infection
  103. individual variation HIV
    • rate of immune cell depletion varies
    • genetic difference in r/cs
  104. adapted immune response HIV
    • cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
    • antibody production
  105. latent phase HIV
    • cellular latency
    • clinical latency= not AIDS right away
  106. dynamic equilibrium HIV
    6-9 months b/t infected cells, viral replication and CD4 production
  107. second phase of decay HIV
    loss of latent CD4
  108. onset of AIDS
    • 1 year-15 years after infection
    • T4 cells below 200, immune activity drops
    • AIDS: onset of HIV-associated oportunistic infections
  109. window period of HIV
    • infected person does not test positive with western blot or ELISA even though they have a high titer and symptoms
    • could last for 6 months
  110. variation in HIV
    • little early variation in single patient
    • later infection shows variability due to: selective immune response and high mutation rate
    • mutation resulting in evolution of SI HIV
    • syncytia of CD$ cells, better at transfering virus
  111. SI HIV
    uses CCR-5 and CXCR-4-co-r/cs to infect multiple cell types
  112. cancer and aids
    • viral (HHV 8) kaposi's sarcoma
    • hodgkins lymphoma
    • b cell lymphoma (burketts)
    • HPV cancers- anogenital
  113. epidemiology of HIV/AIDS- Jan/05 UN report
    • AIDS= 58 million worldwide
    • 90% in developing countries
    • AIDS increasing in females
    • 70% of HIV people live in sub-Saharan Africa
  114. Diagnosis of HIV
    • HIV-PCR: # of particles in blood
    • ELISA and western blot: antibody titer
  115. chemotherapy HIV
    • HAART: triple drug therapy
    • reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    • protease inhibitors
  116. HIV vaccine
    GOAL: provide sterilizing immunity, acts agains free virus and HIV infected cells
  117. Problems with HIV vaccine
    • retrovirus: RT and RNA polymerase 2 lead to rapid polymorphism, vaccine would likely not effect all strains
    • dont know how HIV leads to CD4 depeletion
    • No good animal models: chimps dont develop AIDS

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview