Comparative Test 4 (C4)
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The _____ is the primary fetal respiratory organ so all blood in the fetus does not need to go to the lungs.
In the fetal circulation in mammals, bypasses are built in to prevent _____.
What are the two bypasses in fetal circulations in mammals?
- Ductus arteriosus
- Foramen Ovale
Describe the bypasses in fetal circulations in mammals.
- Ductus arteriosus is found between pulmonary artery and aorta, so blood can bypass lungs and left side of the heart.
- Foramen ovale is found between atria, so blood bypasses right ventricle and lungs.
Describe the hepatic portal system.
Portal systems are veins connecting capillary beds; conservative in evolutionary terms.
Describe the common cardinals.
Pectoral appendages drain by way of brachial and subclavian veins.
Describe the lateral (or ventral) abdominal veins.
Receives blood from pelvic appendages in amphibians and reptiles, carries blood into hepatic or renal portal system rather than to common cardinals.
Describe the caudal vena cava.
- Found in amphibians, reptiles, and birds.
- evolved from part of the right hepatic vein and the subcardinals: this vein receives most of the blood from the kidneys, posterior part of the trunk, and hind legs.
Mammals have a _____ extending caudal to the kidneys which directly receives the drainage of the pelvic region and hind legs.
Caudal vena cava
The extensions of the caudal vena cava results from evolution of a supracardinal system of veins and a _____. (joining of the subcardinals and supracardinals)
Describe the renal portal system.
is lost in mammals, allowing more rapid return of blood to the heart from the caudal regions.
Describe the cardinal system.
Drains the head is converted to the external and internal jugular and the cranial vena cava. (superior vena cava, anterior vena cava, and precava)
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