Terms Pharm Unit 1

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queline
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122318
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Terms Pharm Unit 1
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2012-01-11 10:31:48
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Unit Pharmacology Intro
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Unit 1 Pharmacology Intro lehne 2010
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  1. the study of drugs on humans
    clinical pharmacology
  2. any chemical that can affect living processes
    Drug
  3. the study of drugs and their interactions with living systems
    Pharmacology
  4. a drug that elicits only the response for which it is given
    selectivity (as it applies to a drug’s effects)
  5. an effect that a drug may have that was not intended
    side effect(s) (of a drug)
  6. Name the 11 rights of drug administration
    • Right medication
    • Right dose
    • Right time
    • Right route
    • Right client
    • Right client education
    • Right documentation
    • Right to refuse
    • Right assessment
    • Right evaluation
    • Right Circumstance
  7. the use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy
    Therapeutics
  8. Before giving the drug
    Preadmission assessment
  9. What are the 3 basic goals of Preadmission assessment
    • Collect baseline data
    • Identify the at-risk patients
    • Assess patient capacity for self-care
  10. compliance or the extent to which a patient’s behavior coincides with medical advice. IS ESSENTIAL!
    Patient adherence
  11. collecting data about the patient, patient interview, medical and drug-use history, physical examination, observation of the patient and Lab tests.
    Assessment
  12. the nurse analyses the database to determine actual and potential health problems. Nursing Diagnosis.
    Analysis
  13. the nurse delineates specific interventions directed at solving or preventing the problems identified in analysis.
    Planning
  14. begins with carrying out the interventions identified during planning
    Implementation
  15. performed to determine the degree to which treatment was successful.
    Evaluation
  16. constitutes a description of a drug using the nomenclature of chemistry
    chemical name (of drug)
  17. is assigned by the United States Adopted Names Council. Preferable name to be used.
    generic name (of drug)
  18. It is what is needed to move on to phase 4 of new drug development.
    new drug application (NDA)
  19. 3 CYP families of liver enzymes responsible for drug metabolism
    cytochrome P450 system
  20. the movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood
    distribution
  21. What are the 2 purposes of enteric-coated drugs?
    • to protect drugs from acid and pepsin in the stomach
    • protect stomach from drugs that can cause gastric discomfort
  22. a cycle in which drugs in the liver are taken up into the bile, secreted back into the small intestine (by the bile duct), and then reabsorbed back into the portal blood.
    enterohepatic recirculation
  23. removal of the drug out of the body
    excretion
  24. How can Drugs can be excreted?
    by bile, urine, sweat, saliva, breast milk, and MOST importantly KIDNEY.
  25. If client is back from surgery and is not to full renal function, how can you promote a client to excrete anesthetic medication?
    Have them do deep breathing: rational – with help excrete anesthetics.
  26. How are most drugs excreted?
    by kidneys
  27. refers to the rapid hepatic inactivation of certain oral drugs
    first-pass effect
  28. the time required for the amount of drug in the body to decrease by 50%
    half-life
  29. attracted to water
    hydrophiliC
  30. repels away from water (usually lipids)
    hydrophobic
  31. process of stimulating enzyme synthesis (can have 2 positive effects, stimulates the liver to produce more enzymes, AND accelerate the metabolism)
    induction of drug metabolism
  32. strong attraction of lipids.
    lipophilic
  33. smaller doses of drugs than a maintenance dose AND It is how the plateau can be maintained, minimum effective concentration (of drug in plasma or blood) – MEC AND the plasma drug level below which therapeutic effects will not occur AND for a drug to be beneficial it must reach at least the MEC)
    maintenance dose
  34. enzymatic alteration of drug structure
    Metabolism (Most drug metabolism occurs in the liver)
  35. injected AND skips the absorption stage of pharmacokinetics
    Parenteral
  36. it is the study of drug movement throughout the body
    pharmacokinetics
  37. steady drug level
    plateau of drug effect or plasma/blood level (when the amount of drug eliminated between doses equals the dose administered, average drug levels will remain constant and plateau will have been reached AND It usually takes 4 half-lives to achieve the Plateau)
  38. molecule has a positive or negative charge AND must polar to be excreted
    polar
  39. Neutral charge molecule AND cannot be excreted
    nonpolar
  40. a compound that is pharmacologically inactive as administered and then undergoes conversion to its active form within the body
    • makes a drug active inside the body, that was inactive outside the body
    • prodrug
  41. a molecule that contain at least one atom of nitrogen and carry a positive charge at all times therapeutic range (of drug concentration in plasma or blood)
    quaternary
  42. movement of the drug from its site of administration into the blood
    absorption (determines how soon the effects will begin AND the amount of absorption helps determine how intense effects will be)
  43. % of drug absorbed and available to use AND can vary from person to person
    bioavailability
  44. The property of when two drugs have identical active ingredients or 2 different dosage forms of the same drug processes similar bioavailability and produce the same effect at the site of the physiological activity
    bioequivalence
  45. a drug is attached to albumin to be transported to its destination.
    bound drug (Cannot leave blood stream if bound to albumin! Albumin is too large to pass through capillary walls)
  46. a drug not attached to albumin an is available for use or is able to pass through capillary walls
    unbound, or “free"
  47. the strength of the attraction between a drug and its receptor
    affinity
  48. causes a response
    agonist
  49. prevents a response (plugs receptors, e.g., Narcan)
    antagonist, antagonism
  50. bind reversibly to receptors, they compete with the agonists for receptor sites, competes for binding sites if enough Agonists available, if enough agonists are not available, no blocking will occur
    competitive (surmountable)
  51. relationship between size of an administered dose and the intensity of the response, determine minimum amount of drug and maximum response, AND how much is needed to increase dosage to produce increased response (Basic features:As dose is increased the response is also increased, Can increase or decrease dose until desired response occurs, AND at some point an increase in dose cannot increase the response)
    dose-response relationship (or dose-response curve)
  52. dosage required to produce a defined therapeutic response in 50% of the population, Average effective dose, Standard dose
    ED5O
  53. the effect a drug can produce
    Efficacy
  54. is the largest effect that a drug can produce
    Maximum efficacy
  55. average lethal dose
    LD5O
  56. bind irreversibly to receptors decreases the number of receptors available
    noncompetitive antagonist/antagonism
  57. the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs and the molecular mechanisms by which those effect are produced, the study of what drugs do to the body and how they do it
    pharmacodynamics
  58. the amount of drug we must give to elicit an effect
    potency
  59. the special "chemicals" in the body that most drugs interact with to produce effects
    receptor
  60. any functional macromolecule in a cell to which a drug binds to produce its effects
    receptor
  61. a highly desirable characteristic of a drug
    selectivity
  62. the ratio of a drug's LD50 to its ED50 ( a high one is relatively safe, a low one drug is relatively unsafe)
    therapeutic index
  63. the ability of a drug to activate a receptor upon binding
    intrinsic activity
  64. The majority of drug metabolism is catalyzed by this group of enzymes, which is composed of a large number of isozymes (closely related enzymes)
    cytochrome P450 (CYP) system
  65. can inhibit the metabolism of certain drugs, thereby raising their blood levels
    grapefruit juice effect
  66. a process of stimulating enzyme synthesis
    induction of drug metabolism
  67. Interactions that result in reduced drug effects
    Inhibitory
  68. When a patient is taking 2 medications, one drug may intensify the effects of the other
    Potentiative
  69. there are 2 basic types: 1. interactions in which the interacting drugs act at the same site, and 2. interactions in which the interacting drugs act a separate sites
    pharmacodynamic drug interaction
  70. When 2 drugs are taken together, one may alter the absorption, ditribution, metabolism, or excretion of the other
    pharmacokinetic drug interaction
  71. Any noxious, unintended, and undesiread effect that occurs at normal doses
    adverse drug reaction
  72. allergic reaction
    • carcinogenic (effect)
    • iatrogenic
    • idiosyncratic effect (idiosyncrasy)
    • MedWatch
    • physical dependence
    • side effect
    • teratogenic (effect)
    • toxicity (of a drug)
  73. bioavailability
    • idiosyncrasy, idiosyncratic response
    • metabolic tolerance
    • pharmacodynamic tolerance
    • placebo and placebo effect
    • tachyphylaxis

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