Lifespan chapter 7.txt

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cgat45
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Lifespan chapter 7.txt
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2011-12-09 22:01:18
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    • author "me"
    • tags "Lspan"
    • description ""
    • fileName "Lifespan chapter 7"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Information processing approch
    • Analyze how individuals Manipulate information,monitor it and create strategies for handling it
  1. Effective information processing involves
    Attention, thinking, memory
  2. Encoding
    Process by wich information gets into memory. Changes in children cognitive skills depend om increased skill at encoding relevant information and ignoring irrelevant information
  3. Automaticity
    The ability to process information with little or no effort. Practice allows children to encode increasing amounts of information automatically and as a result we can complete tasks more quickly and can handle more then one tasks
  4. Strategy construction
    Creation of new procedures for processing information.( childs reading benifits when they when they devlop a strategy of stopping periodically)
  5. Self modification
    Children learn to use what they have learned in prrevious circumstances to adapt to their responses to new situation
  6. Metacognition (part of self modification)
    Knowing about knowing/ knowledge about when and where to use particular strategies
  7. Reaction time task
    To access process speed individuals are asked to push a button as soon as they see a stimulus such as a light
  8. How fast children can process information
    Is linked with their competence in thinking, but everyday task speed processing information may not be important
  9. Attention
    Focusing on mental resources and improve cognitive processing for many task
  10. 4 types of attention
    • Selective attention
    • Divided attention
    • Sustained attention
    • Executive attention
  11. Selective attention
    Focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant
  12. first year: orientation/ investigation process
    • Directs attention to locations (where)
    • Recognize objects and their features (what)
    • attention gains flexibility and speed
    • Sustained (focus) attention increase
  13. Divided attention
    Concentrating on more then one activity at a time
  14. Sustained attention
    Maintain focus on selected stimulus over prolong period called vigilance( sustained attention allows infants to learn about and remember characteristics of a stimulus as it becomes familiar)
  15. Executive attention
    Focus on action planning, goals, errors ,and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and declining with novel or difficult circumstances
  16. Habituation
    Decreased responsiveness to stimulus after repeated presentations
  17. Dishabituation
    Recovery of a habutated response after change in stimulation
  18. Joint attention
    • Indvisuals focus on the same object or event and requires:
    • An ability to track anothers behavior, such as following a gaze
    • One person directing anothers attention
    • Reciprocal interaction
    • Usually involves caregivers pointing or using words to direct an infants attention
  19. Young childhood attention
    Makes advantages in executive and sustained attention
  20. Salient
    Preschool children are more likely to pay attention to stimuli that stands out ( clown giving directions to a problem and kid pay attention to only the clown instead of the directions)
  21. Adolescence attention
    • Better at task that require skills
    • Ability to shift from one activity to another at will
    • Better at multi tasking
  22. Adult attention
    • Older adults may not be able to focus on relevant information as effectively as younger adults
    • Less adept at selective attention
    • Affected by vision and environmental distractions older adults(50 to 80) perform worste in divided attention
  23. Memory
    Is the retention of information over time
  24. Processes of memory
    How information is placed or encoded into memory, retained and stored after being encoded, and how it is found or retrieved for a certain purpose later
  25. Encoding memory
    Getting information into memory
  26. Storage
    Retaining information over time
  27. Retrieval
    Taking information out of storage
  28. Schema theory
    People mold memories to fit information that already exist in their minds
  29. Sachems
    Mental frameworks that organize concepts and information; affects encoding and retrieval
  30. Implicit memory
    Memory without conscious recollection; skills and routine done automatically
  31. Explicit memory
    Conscious memory of facts and experiences; appears after 6 months
  32. Infantile amnesia
    Adults recall little or none of first three years
  33. Short term memory
    Retain information up to 15 to 30 seconds without rehearsal
  34. Working memory
    mental work bench for manipulating and assembling information, makes decsions, solve problems, comprehend written and spoken language ( peaks at 45 and decrease at 57)
  35. Long term memory
    Relatively permanent, unlimited type of memory
  36. Strategies
    Used to improve information processing
  37. Rehearsal
    Repetition better for short term
  38. Organizing
    Elaberating on information to be remembered, and making it personally relevant and making long term memory more effective
  39. Imagery
    Creating mental images for verbal information
  40. Elaboration
    Engaging in more extensive processing of information
  41. Fuzzy trace theory
    Two types of memory representations verbatim memory trace and gist
  42. Verbatim memory trace
    Memory in precise detail
  43. Gist
    Central idea of information
  44. Knowledge
    Influences what people notice and how they organize,represent, interpret information
  45. Explicit
    Conscious memory of facts and experience (at the grocery store and remember to buy something
  46. Episodic memory
    Retention of information about the where and when of life happening ( what was it like when your younger brother was born)
  47. Autobiographical memory
    Is personal recollection of events and facts stored episodic memory
  48. Reminiscence bump
    Memory of second and third decades of life especially positives
  49. Semantic memory
    Ones knowledge about world including field of expertise
  50. Implicit memory
    Routine skills and procedures performed automatically (unconscious memory)
  51. Source memory
    Ability to remember where something is learned (physical and emotional setting)
  52. Prospective memory
    Remembering to do something in the future
  53. Thinking
    Manipulating, transforming information in memory
  54. Key aspects of infant cognitive development?
    Attention, memory, imitation, concepts
  55. Concepts
    Ideas about what categories represent
  56. Categories
    Grouping based on characteristics
  57. Perceptual categorization
    Categorizations are based similar perceputal features such as size, shapes, color and movement
  58. Critical thinking
    Grasping deeper meaning of ideas, open minded( ask what, how, and why)
  59. Scientific thinking
    Aspects of thinking are domain specific, aimed at identifying causal relationship
  60. Solving problems
    Finding ways to attain a goal
  61. Expertise
    Extensive, highly organized knowledge and understanding of particular domain
  62. Cognitive neuroscience and aging
    Studies brain and cognitive functioning links using mri and pet scans
  63. Mindfulness
  64. Metamemory
    Knowledge about memory
  65. Theory of mind
    Curiosity or thoughts about how mental processes work
  66. Theory of mind and autism
    Difficulty in social interactions, communication, repetitive behaviors, interests and having difficulty developing theory of mind
  67. Phonological loop
    Information bout speech is stored and rehearsal takes place
  68. Visuospatial working memory
    Visual and spatial information including imagrey are stored
  69. Strategies
    Involve the use of mental activities to improve the processing information

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