Chapter8.txt

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cgat45
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Chapter8.txt
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2011-12-09 22:03:14
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    • author "me"
    • tags "Lspan"
    • description ""
    • fileName "Chapter8"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Intelligence
    • Ability to solve problems; adapt to learn from everyday experiences
  1. Mental age (ma)
    Individual levels of mental development relative to others
  2. Chronological (ca)
    Age from birth
  3. Intelligence quotient (iq)
    Individuals mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100
  4. Normal distribution
    Symmetrical distribution of scores around a mean(curved graph)
  5. Wechsler scale
    • Provide iq scores as well as several composite scores
    • Verbal comprehension index
    • Working memory index
    • Processing speed index
  6. Sternberg's triarchic theory
    • Three main types of intelligence
    • Analytical, creative, and practical
  7. Gardners theory of multiple intelligences
    • 8 types of intelligence
    • Verbal
    • Mathematics
    • Spatial
    • Interpersonal
    • Body-kinesthetic
    • Musical
    • Intrapersonal
    • Naturalist skills
  8. Spearmans two-factor theory factor analysis
    Correlates test scores into clusters or factor
  9. General intelligence
  10. Specific intelligence
  11. Heritability
    Portion of the variance in population that is attributed to gense
  12. Flynn effect
    Increase in world wide intelligence test
  13. Abecedarian project
    Project about enviromental influences on iq test
  14. Culture- fair tests
    • Culturally Unbiased iq test
    • First type: questions on information common to all ses and ethnic group
    • Second type: no verbal questions used
  15. Culture reduced tests
    Sternberg concluded that there are no cultural fair test
  16. Stereotype threat
    Anxiety that one behavior might confirm a negative stereotype about ones group
  17. Test of infant intelligence
    Focus on perceptual- motor, social interaction, and much less verbal than iq test for older children
  18. Gesell
    Distinguishes normal from abnormal in infants
  19. 4 categories of behaviors
    Motor, language, adaptive, and personal- social
  20. Developmental quotient
    Combined overall scores of motor,language, adaptive, and personal social
  21. Bayley scales of infant development
    • Acess infants behavior and predict later devlopment
    • Five scales:
    • - cognitive, language, motor, adaptive, and socioemotional
  22. Fagan test of infant intelligence
    • Focuses on infant ability to process information
    • Encoding objects attributes
    • Detecting objects similarity and differences
    • Forming, retrieving mental representation
  23. Crystallized intelligence
    Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age
  24. Individual differences
    Are the stable, consistent ways in which individuals are different from one another
  25. Robert j sternberg
    He viewed intelligence involving weighing opinion carefully and acting judiciously,as well as developing strategies to improve shortcomings
  26. Alfred binet
    Intelligence consit of complex cognitive processes such as memory, imagery, comprehension and judgement
  27. Lewis terman
    Made revisions on alfred binet test and devloped extensive norms and provided detail clear instructions for each problem on the test/ also came up with the iq test
  28. Analytical intelligence
    • A component in witch is a basic use of information processing
    • Reatin or retrieve information, to transfer information, to plan, make decsions, and solve problems
  29. Creative intelligence
    Do not have high iq scores but has an insightful creative mind
  30. Practical intelligence
    Score low on iq test/ know information about getting along in the world that you are not taught in school
  31. Verbal
    The ability to think in words and use language to express meaning ( authors, journalists
  32. Mathematical
    The ability to carry out mathematical operations( scientists, engineers)
  33. Spatial
    The ability to think 3d (artist)
  34. Bodily kinestheic
    The ability to manipulate objects and be physically adept (athletes)
  35. Musical
    A sensitivity to music
  36. Interpersonal
    The ability to understand a effectively interact with others ( successful teachers)
  37. Intrapersonal
    The ability to understand ones self (pyschologists)
  38. Emotional intelligence
    The ability to precieve and express emotions accurately
  39. Fluid intelligence
    The ability to reason abstractly, begins to decline in middle adulthood
  40. Verbal ability
    Ability to understand ideas expressed in words
  41. Paul
  42. Paul baltes
    Clarified the distinction between those aspects of the aging mind that decline and those that remain stable or even improve
  43. Cognitive mechanics
    • Hardware of the mind
    • Speed and accuracy of processes involved in sensory input and have more biological influenced
  44. Cognitive pragmatics
    • Culture based software programs of the mind, include reading writing and language comprehension
    • Knowledge about self and lifeskills
    • can improve with age
  45. Wisdom
    Expert knowledge on practical aspects of life permitting exellent judgment about important matters
  46. Mental retardation
    Is a condition of limited mental ability and have low iq, difficulty adapting to everyday life and sxhibits these characteristics by age 18
  47. Organic retardation
    Mental retardation caused by a genetic disorder or brain damage
  48. Cultural Familial retardation
    No evidence of organic or brain damage
  49. Giftedness
    Have higher intelligence or superior talent for something
  50. Precocity
    Begain to master an area earlier then their peers
  51. Creativity
    The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique, good solutions
  52. Divergent thinking
    Produces many answers to the same question( that's why its no creativity on iq)
  53. Steps in creative process
    • Preparation
    • Incubation
    • Insight
    • Evaluation
    • Elaberation
  54. Characteristic of creative thinkers
    • Flexible and Playful
    • Inner motivation
    • Willingness to risk
    • Objective evaluation
  55. Brainstorming
    Technique that encourage people to come up with creative ideas in a group

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