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If you see an alkene, what type of reaction are you thinking of
What does the alkene become in an addition reaction
- It becomes a
- - haloalkane (HX)
- - alkane (Br2 Cl2)
- - alcohol (H2O)
Reactions of alkenes are mostly (endo, exo) thermic
In an addition reaction of an alkene, what happens
The double bond is removed to accomodate whatever is being added (RULES APPLY)
What is Markovnikov's rule.
Add the hydrogen to the (double bond attached carbon) that has the most hydrogens already on it
Which two addition reactions follow Markovnikov's rule?
- Addition of HX, Addition of H2O
- (The other addition reactions are Cl2 and Br2, so adding two of the same thing- doesn't matter where you put it.)
What two reactions do you think of when you see an alcohol
- - 1. Dehydration
- - 2. Oxidation
What does the alcohol become when it is dehydrated
The alcohol turns into an alkene
Describe what to do with a dehydration reaction
- - Find the -OH
- - Add a double bond to the two Carbons next to the Carbon of the -OH
- - Remove the -OH
- - Check which double bond carbon gives the most alkyl groups (single bonds C adjacent to double bonded C). The one with the most predominates
How can you tell the difference between an alcohol that is going to be dehydrated and one that is going to be oxidized?
The catalysts. Dehydration uses H2SO4. Oxidation uses PCC or K2Cr2O7
You have a primary alcohol. Describe how it is oxidized using PCC
Remove the OH, add an aldehyde function group in its place
You have a primary alcohol. Describe how it is oxidized using K2Cr2O7
Remove the -OH group. Add a -COOH in its place
You have a secondary alcohol, describe how it is oxidized
Remove -OH group, add a =O in its place
In summary, the reactions of alcohols change the alcohols into
- 1. (Dehydration) Alkene
- 2. (Oxidation) Aldehydes, Carboxylic Acids, Ketones
Halogenation of an alkane is a
In the halogenation of an alkane, where does the other H (halogen) go?
Think "Hydrogen Halogen" substitute a Hydrogen on the molecule for a halogen, stick the other one left with a hydrogen
Do a combustion reaction for an alkane