Thyroid Ultrasound

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Qwizdom100
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122341
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Thyroid Ultrasound
Updated:
2011-12-10 11:10:38
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Sonography
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  1. what system is the thyroid gland apart of
    endocrine system
  2. what hormones does the thyroid secrete
    • triiodothyronine (T3)
    • thyroxine (T4)
    • calcitonin
  3. enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be focal or diffuse
    goiter
  4. localized enlargement of the thyroid gland
    nodular goiter
  5. location and level of thyroid
    anterior and level of the thyroid cartilage
  6. name the lobes of the thyroid
    • 2 right & left lobes
    • pyramidal lobe (uncommon anatomical variant not a real lobe)
  7. small piece of thyroid tissue that connects the right and left lobes of the gland
    isthmus
  8. thyroid tissue that is present in 15% to 30% of patients; extends superiorly from the isthmus
    pyramidal lobe
  9. which sex typically has a larger thyroid gland
    females
  10. size of an adult thyroid
    • 40-60 mm long
    • 20-30 mm AP
    • 15-20 mm width
    • 2-6 mm isthmus
  11. group of 3 muscles that lie anterior to the thyroid (sternothyroid, sternohyoid, & omohyoid)
    strap muscles
  12. large muscle located anterolateral to the thyroid
    sternocleidomastoid muscle
  13. size of a child thyroid
    • 20-30 mm long
    • 12-15 mm AP
    • 10-15 mm width
  14. sonographic appearance of the strap muscles
    thin, hypoechoic bands anterior to gland
  15. wedge-shaped muscle posterior to the thyroid lobes
    longus colli muscle
  16. how many arteries supply the thyroid?
    • 2 superior
    • 2 inferior
  17. a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  18. thyroid-stimulating hormone is regulated by what
    thyrotropin-releasing factor produced and released by the hypothalamus when the basal metabolic rate drops
  19. a thyroid hormone that is important for maintaining a dense, strong bone matrix and regulating the blood calcium level
    calcitonin
  20. excessive amounts of calcium in the blood
    hypercalcemia
  21. refers to a normal functioning thyroid gland
    euthyroid
  22. oversecretion of thyroid hormones
    hyperthyroidism
  23. underactive thyroid hormones secretion
    hypothyroidism
  24. name the causes of hypothyroidism
    • low iodine intake
    • inability of the thyroid to produce the proper amount of thyroid hormone
    • problem with the pituitary gland controlling thyroid hormone production
  25. signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism
    myxedema, weight gain, hair loss, increased subcutaneous tissue around the eyes, lethargy, intellectual and motor slowing, cold intolerance, constipation, deep husky voice
  26. name the causes of hyperthyroidism
    • thyroid out of control (?wtf book)
    • localized neoplasm such as an adenoma
  27. signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism
    drastically increased metabolic rate, weight loss, increased appetite, high degree of nervous energy, tremor, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, palpitations, exophthalmos (protruding eyes)
  28. how should the patient be positioned for a thyroid ultrasound
    supine with the neck slightly hyperextended, patient's head should be turned to the opposite side
  29. scanning protocol for the thyroid
    • long med, mid (meas), lat
    • trans sup, mid (meas), inf
    • isthmus (trans & book says long) (meas trans)
  30. sonographic appearance of a normal thyroid and adjacent anatomy
    • fine homogeneous echotexture that is more echogenic than surrounding muscles
    • esophagus has a hypoechoic rim surrounding an echogenic center
  31. most common cause of thyroid disorders worldwide
    iodine deficiency
  32. most common cause of thyroid disorders in areas not deficient in iodine
    autoimmune disorders
  33. name the pathologies that cause nodular thyroid disease
    • nontoxic simple goiter
    • toxic multinodular goiter
    • Grave's Disease
    • Thyroiditis
    • Benign Lesions
    • Cysts
    • Adenomas
  34. clinical findings and sonographic appearance of nontoxic simple goiter
    • thyroid enlargement
    • hypothyroidism
    • sometimes smooth, sometimes nodular; possible compression of surrounding structures
  35. clinical findings and sonographic appearance of toxic multinodular goiter
    • thyroid enlargement
    • enlarged inhomogeneous gland; can have focal scarring, focal ischemia, necrosis, and cyst formation
    • fibrosis and calcifications can also occur
  36. 80% of nodular thyroid disease caused by
    hyperplasia of the gland
  37. clinical findings and sonographic appearance of Grave's disease
    • diffuse toxic goiter
    • opthalmopathy
    • cutaneous manifestations
    • hyperthyroidism
    • thyrotoxic crisis
    • diffusely homogeneous, hypoechoic, increased vascularity and enlarged
  38. an acute situation in a patient with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism, usually precipitated by infection or surgery. It may be life threatening because of resulting hyperthermia, tachycardia, heart failure, and delirium
    thyrotoxic crisis aka thyroid storm
  39. inflammation including swelling and tenderness of the thyroid gland
    Thyroiditis
  40. 2 types of thyroiditis
    • de Quervain's
    • Hashimoto's
  41. viral infection of the thyroid that causes inflammation with enlargement and tenderness
    de Quervain's thyroiditis
  42. most common form of thyroiditis, it's an autoimmune disorder that causes chronic inflammation of the thyroid by the formation of antibodies against normal thyroid tissue
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  43. clinical findings and sonographic appearance of thyroiditis
    • swelling
    • tenderness
    • hypothyroidism
    • homogeneous enlargement with nodularity; later inhomogeneous enlargement
  44. benign lesions of the thyroid
    • cysts
    • adenomas
  45. sonographic appearance of simple cysts
    • anechoic
    • sharp, well-defined walls and distal acoustic enhancement
  46. clinical findings and sonographic appearance of cysts
    • solitary nodules or multiple nodules
    • anechoic areas
    • echogenic fluid
    • moving fluid levels
  47. clinical findings and sonographic appearance of adenomas
    • usually euthyroid or hyperthyroid
    • compression of adjacent structures
    • fibrous encapsulation
    • range from anechoic to hyperechoic
    • may have halo
  48. benign thyroid neoplasm characterized by complete fibrous encapsulation that compresses adjacent structures
    adenomas
  49. thin echolucent rim surrounding a lesion, may represent edema of the compressed normal thyroid tissue or the capsule of the adenoma
    halo
  50. multiple nodules have a decreased risk of what
    malignancy
  51. a solitary thyroid nodule in the presence of cervical adenopathy on the same side suggests
    malignancy
  52. 50% to 80% of all thyroid carcinoma have what
    calcifications
  53. most common form of thyroid malignancy often found in children and females. appears as round laminated calcifications with hyperechogenicity, hypervascularity, and microcalcifications
    papillary carcinoma
  54. tiny, punctate hyperechoic foci (w or w/o acoustic shadowing)
    microcalcifications
  55. more aggressive thyroid carcinoma that presents as a solitary mass and appears as irregular, firm, nodular enlargement
    follicular carcinoma
  56. thyroid carcinoma that presents as a hard, bulky mass that causes enlargement of a small portion of the gland and can envolve the entire gland, it appears as punctuated, bright, echogenic foci within solid masses
    medullary carcinoma
  57. undifferentiated hard fixed mass with rapid growth, locally invasive in surrounding neck structures and can cause death by compression and asphyxiation because trachea invasion, appears as hypoechoic mass, with invasion of surrounding muscles and vessels
    Anaplastic carcinoma
  58. what is the most common type of lymphoma that affects the thyroid
    non-hodgkin's
  59. sonographic appearance of thyroid lymphoma
    • nonvascular hypoechoic and lobulated mass
    • possible large areas of cystic necrosis within the tumor
    • adjacent thyroid parenchyma may be heterogeneous secondary to chronic thyroiditis
  60. typical number of parathyroid glands
    • 4
    • 3-5 not uncommon
  61. location of parathyroid glands
    • posterior medial surface of thyroid gland
    • 2 superior
    • 2 inferior
  62. size of parathyroid glands
    less than 4 mm
  63. function of the parathyroid glands
    calcium-sensing organs, produce parathyroid hormone (PTH) and monitor the serum calcium feedback mechanism
  64. function of parathyroid hormone
    acts on bone, kidney, and intestine to enhance calcium absorption

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