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- Descent with modification
- The idea that living species are descendents of ancestral species that were different from the present day ones
- The change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation.
The study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment
List the levels of biological classification:
Domain > Kingdom > Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species
List the levels of biological organization:
Atom > Molecule > Cell Organelle > Cell > Tissue > Organ > Organ System > Organism > Populations > Communities > Ecosystems > Biome > Biosphere
The Scope of Ecology:
Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment.
Studies how an organism's structure, physiology, and behavior meet environmental challenges.
Group of the same species living in an area.
Group of populations of different species in an area.
Community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact.
A mosaic of connected ecosystems.
The biosphere is the sum of all the planet's ecosystems.
Define Biotic Factors:
- A living component of the environment studied.
Define Abiotic Factors:
- A non-living component of the environment studied.
- Relationships between species in a community.
- Can affect the survival and reproduction of each species.
- Summarized as positive (+) and negative (-) or no effect (O).
Examples of Community Interactions:
- Symbiosis (parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism)
(-/-) Occurs when different species compete for a resource in short supply.
(-/-) Occurs when members of the same species compete for a resource in short supply.
- Local elimination of a competing species.
- via strong competition.
The competitive exclusion principle states that:
Two species competing for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place.
Species' Ecological Niche:
- The total of a species' use of biotic and abiotic resources.
- Similar species can coexist in a community if there are significant differences in their niches.
- Differentiation of ecological niches, enabling similar species to coexist in a community.
- May lead to a difference in fundamental and realized niches.
- The niche potentially occupied by a species if no competition is present.
- The portion of the fundamental niche that a species actually occupies in a particular environment.
Two populations occupying the same geographic area.
Two populations occupying geographically separated areas.
Tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species.
- (+/-) Interaction where the predator kills and eats the prey.
- Adaptations of predators are claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, poison, etc.
- Behavioral defenses include hiding, fleeing, forming herds or schools, self-defense, alarm calls, etc.
- Also have morphological and physiological defense adaptations.
- Warning of chemical defenses.
- Super effective agasint Predators.
A palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model.
Two or more unpalatable species resemble each other.
- (+/-) Interaction in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga.
- It has led to evolution of plant mechanical and chemical defenses and adaptations by herbivores.
A relationship where two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another.
- (+/-) the parasite derives nourishment from its host which is harmed in the process.
- Some parasites have complex life cycles involving numerous hosts
- Some can change behaviour of the host.
Live within the body of their host.
Live on the external surface of a host.
(+/+) Mutualism, is an interspecific interaction that benefits both species.
The Two types of mutualism:
- Obligate - one species cannot survive without the other.
- Facultative - both species can survive alone.
(+/O) One species benefits and the other is apparently unaffected.
The feeding relationships between organisms in a community.
Link trophic levels from producers to top carnivores.
- Branching food chain with complex trophic interactions.
- Species may play a role at more than one trophic level.
- Food webs can be simplified by isolating a portion that interacts very little with the rest.