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  1. Define Evolution:
    • Descent with modification
    • or
    • The idea that living species are descendents of ancestral species that were different from the present day ones
    • or
    • The change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation.
  2. Define Ecology:
    The study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment
  3. List the levels of biological classification:
    Domain > Kingdom > Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species
  4. List the levels of biological organization:
    Atom > Molecule > Cell Organelle > Cell > Tissue > Organ > Organ System > Organism > Populations > Communities > Ecosystems > Biome > Biosphere
  5. The Scope of Ecology:
    Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment.
  6. Organismal Ecology:
    Studies how an organism's structure, physiology, and behavior meet environmental challenges.
  7. Population Ecology:
    Group of the same species living in an area.
  8. Community Ecology:
    Group of populations of different species in an area.
  9. Ecosystem Ecology:
    Community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact.
  10. Landscape Ecology:
    A mosaic of connected ecosystems.
  11. Global Ecology:
    The biosphere is the sum of all the planet's ecosystems.
  12. Define Biotic Factors:
    • A living component of the environment studied.
    • Predation
    • Competition
    • Symbiosis
  13. Define Abiotic Factors:
    • A non-living component of the environment studied.
    • Temperature
    • Water
    • Sunlight
    • Wind
    • Rocks
    • Soil
  14. Community Interactions:
    • Relationships between species in a community.
    • Can affect the survival and reproduction of each species.
    • Summarized as positive (+) and negative (-) or no effect (O).
  15. Examples of Community Interactions:
    • Competition
    • Predation
    • Herbivory
    • Symbiosis (parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism)
  16. Interspecific Competition:
    (-/-) Occurs when different species compete for a resource in short supply.
  17. Intraspecific Competition:
    (-/-) Occurs when members of the same species compete for a resource in short supply.
  18. Competitive Exclusion:
    • Local elimination of a competing species.
    • via strong competition.
  19. The competitive exclusion principle states that:
    Two species competing for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place.
  20. Species' Ecological Niche:
    • The total of a species' use of biotic and abiotic resources.
    • Similar species can coexist in a community if there are significant differences in their niches.
  21. Resource Partitioning:
    • Differentiation of ecological niches, enabling similar species to coexist in a community.
    • May lead to a difference in fundamental and realized niches.
  22. Fundamental Niche:
    • The niche potentially occupied by a species if no competition is present.
    • Larger
  23. Realized Niche:
    • The portion of the fundamental niche that a species actually occupies in a particular environment.
    • Smaller
  24. Sympatric Population:
    Two populations occupying the same geographic area.
  25. Allopatric Population:
    Two populations occupying geographically separated areas.
  26. Character Displacement:
    Tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species.
  27. Predation:
    • (+/-) Interaction where the predator kills and eats the prey.
    • Adaptations of predators are claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, poison, etc.
    • Behavioral defenses include hiding, fleeing, forming herds or schools, self-defense, alarm calls, etc.
    • Also have morphological and physiological defense adaptations.
  28. Cryptic Coloration:
  29. Aposematic Coloration:
    • Warning of chemical defenses.
    • Super effective agasint Predators.
  30. Batesian Mimicry:
    A palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model.
  31. Mullerian Mimicry:
    Two or more unpalatable species resemble each other.
  32. Herbivory:
    • (+/-) Interaction in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga.
    • It has led to evolution of plant mechanical and chemical defenses and adaptations by herbivores.
  33. Symbiosis:
    A relationship where two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another.
  34. Parasitism:
    • (+/-) the parasite derives nourishment from its host which is harmed in the process.
    • Some parasites have complex life cycles involving numerous hosts
    • Some can change behaviour of the host.
  35. Endoparasite
    Live within the body of their host.
  36. Ectoparasite:
    Live on the external surface of a host.
  37. Mutualistic Symbiosis:
    (+/+) Mutualism, is an interspecific interaction that benefits both species.
  38. The Two types of mutualism:
    • Obligate - one species cannot survive without the other.
    • Facultative - both species can survive alone.
  39. Commensalism:
    (+/O) One species benefits and the other is apparently unaffected.
  40. Trophic Structure:
    The feeding relationships between organisms in a community.
  41. Food Chains:
    Link trophic levels from producers to top carnivores.
  42. Food Web:
    • Branching food chain with complex trophic interactions.
    • Species may play a role at more than one trophic level.
    • Food webs can be simplified by isolating a portion that interacts very little with the rest.
Card Set:
2011-12-10 09:40:25
intro ecology

BIOL 1215-01 Introduction to Ecology
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