FireHydraulics

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Author:
dfrazier
ID:
122347
Filename:
FireHydraulics
Updated:
2014-09-25 16:27:55
Tags:
Fire Service Hydraulics
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Description:
Fire Department Hydraulics for pumping
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  1. Fire Service Hydraulics (def)
    The study and use of liquids in motion especially as pertaining to the use of water in the extinguishment and control of fire.
  2. Hydrodynamics
    Hydrostatics
    • Hydrodynamics = Water in motion
    • Hydrostatics= Water at rest

    = Hydraulics
  3. Fred Shepherd
    First book on FS Hydrualics - 1917

    Practical Hydraulics for Firemen
  4. Nature of Water
    • 1. abundant, cheap
    • 2. chemically stable
    • 3. absorbs heat 1120 btu/lb
    • 4. virtually incompressable (30K psi for 1% volume reduction)
  5. Fluid Pressure Principles
    • 1. Perpendical to any surface
    • 2. Same intensity in all directions
    • 3. Pressure applied to confined pushes in all directions the same intensity (shape of container doesn't matter)
    • 4. Pressure in open is proportional to the depth (.433 / ft)
    • and density
  6. Hydrualic Measurements of Water
    • 1. 1 Gallon is 231 cubic inches
    • 2. 1 Gallon weighs 8.34 lbs

    • 1. 1 ft3 contains 1728 in3 (12x12x12)
    • 2. Weighs 62.4 lbs
    • 3. Contains 7.481 Gallons
  7. Area Equations
    • Squre or Rectangle LxW
    • Triangle= 1/2 BH
    • Circle= piR2 or .7854D2
  8. Volume or Capacity
    Container= LxWxH

    Cylinder= .7854D2 x H
  9. Back Pressure
    • AKA Head Pressure
    • Pressure generated by the weight of a water column.
    • .433/ft
  10. Disharge
    GPM flowing from an opening
  11. Flow Pressure
    • Forward velocity from a discharge port
    • Usually measured with pitot guage
  12. Friction Loss
    Amount of engergy (pressure) lost in hose, applicance and turbulence.
  13. Back pressure or Head Pressure
    • H=2.304P (P=14.7 at sea level)
    • P=.434H
    • Rule of thumb- 5 psi per story
  14. Atmospheric Pressure at sea level
    • 14.7 psi
    • 33.9 ft of water
    • 30 in Hg
  15. Number of feet water can be lifted
    • 33.9 in perfect vacuum
    • 25 ft for a good pump
    • Rule of thumb is a little higher than vacuum guage reads.
  16. Converstion of in.Hg. to feet
    • Ft=1.13 x in.Hg.
    • In.Hg=.885 x Ft
  17. Velocity (ft/sec)
    • The speed (ft/sec) that water travels from an orifice.
    • Vaires inversly with the sqare of the orifice (double orifice, decrease velocity by 4)
  18. Nozzle Range rule of thumb and formula
    • 1 psi=1 ft range
    • HR=NP/2+45
  19. Discharge (def)
    The volume of water in GPM from an orifice
  20. Discharge volume (GPM) is function of:
    • Diameter (squared) of orifice and
    • Nozzle Pressure (squre root)
    • GPM=29.7D2sqrtNP
  21. Nozzle Reaction rule of thumb
    NR= GPM/2 (half GPM)

    • Varies by D2 and NP directly.
    • Diameter means more than pressure.
  22. Friction Loss general concepts
    • Varies directly with length (2x length = 2x FL)
    • Varies to the square of velocity (2x velocity = 4 x FL)
    • Varies by inverse of D5 (greater diameter really decreases FL)
    • FL varies by velocity not pressure
  23. FL Formulas in use today
    • CQ2xL=FL
    • Q2x Multiplier x L=FL (constant Q)

    Where Q=GPM/100 and L=Hoselenght/100

    • Coefficients:
    • 1 3/4: 15.5
    • 2 1/2: 2
    • 4: .2
    • 5: .08
  24. Discharge from Solid Bore at 50 PSI
    • 1/2=53
    • 5/8=81
    • 7/8=161
    • 1=210
    • 1 1/8=265
    • 1 1/4=326
  25. Discharge from Solid Bore at 80 PSI
    • 1 3/8=500
    • 1 1/2=600
    • 1 3/4=800
    • 2=1000
  26. Forestry Packs
    • 100 PSI
    • +10 PSI/100 ft @ 30 GPM
  27. Ladder Pipe
    • 180-190 PSI
    • Varies per apparatus and single or double discharges
  28. Appliance FL
    • None below 350 GPM
    • >350= 10 PSI each, 25 PSI for Master Streams
  29. Monitor FL
    • 25 PSI at the base (FL for MS appliance)
    • 80 PSI at the tip (master stream)
    • =105 (~125 if "Monitor attack")
  30. Standpipe FL
    10-25 PSI depending on flow (25 is standard for calc)
  31. Sprinkler System Pump Pressure
    150 PSI at the pannel
  32. Portable Monitor
    • 1 3/8" 500 GPM 110 PSI + Supply line FL
    • 1.5" 600 GPM 115 PSI + Supply line FL
    • 1.75" 800 GPM 125 PSI + Supply line FL
  33. Weight/gal of water in Hose and Tank
    • 500/750 Gallon tank= 4170/6255 lbs
    • 50' section of 4" = 32.6 gal
    • 50' section of 5" = 51 gal
  34. Formulas for Weight and Gallons in hose:
    • .7854 x D2 x L in inches (volume of cylinder)
    • divide by 231 cu in. per gallon= total gallons
    • or
    • 17 x D2 = Weight in 50 ft section
    • (weight in 50)/8.33 (lbs per gallon)= total gal.

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