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____ allows the CNS to _____ info and take _______.
what are the 2 ways sensory input is catagorized?
- general somactic senses
how are motoe output categorized?
what are the general somatic senses?
what are the special senses?
what is the autonomic nervous system?
the viseral motor part of the PNS
what do sensory receptors do?
pick up stimuli from inside or outside of the body
what arre motor endings?
- axon terminals of motor neurns
- they innervate effectors (muscles fibers)
what are peripheral sensory receptors?
- structures that pick up sensory stimuli
- initiate signals in sensory axons
what do mechanoreceptors do?
resond to mechanical forces like sound
what do thermoreceptors do?
respond to temp change
what do photoreceptors do?
respond to light, located in the eye
what do chemoreceptors do?
respond to chemicals in solution
what do nociceptors do?
respond to harmful stimuli that result in pain
what do proprioceptors do?
monitor sttretch in muscles and tendons
what are nerves?
bundles of pheripheral axons
what are fascicles?
groups of axons boud into a bundle
what is the endoneurium?
layers of delicate connective tissue surrounding the mylein sheath and axon
what is the perineurium?
connective tissue that surrounds a nerve fascicle
what is the epineurium?
- outermost layer
- the whole nerve is surrounded by this tough fibrous sheath
what are ganglia?
clusters of peripheral neuron cell bodies
cranial nerves attach to the ____ and _____ through the _____ of the skull
where do cranial nerves I and II attach to?
where do all the other cranial nerves attach to besides I and II?
the brain stem
what nerve is nick named "the wanderer" and where does it extend to?
- vagus nerve
- extends into the abdomen
how many spinal nerves are there?
where do they connect?
- 31 pairs
- connect to the spinal cord
what are plexes?
collection of spinal nerves in teh PNS
cervical plexes function?
innervates upper limb
brachial plexus function?
innervates upper limb
lumbar plexus funtion?
innervates lower limb
sacral plexus funtion?
innervates the lower limb
how are spinal nerves named?
by where they orginate on the spinal cord
how do spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord?
by the dorsal and ventral roots
what do dorsal roots contain?
where are the neuron cell bodies located?
in the dorsal root ganglion
what does the ventral root contain?
what do the spinal nerve bracn into?
dorsal ramus and ventral ramus
braches of cervical plexus:
innevates the diaphragm
branche of brachial plexus:
innevates biceps brachii adn brachialis
innervates pectorils major and minor
bracnhes of lumbar plexus:
innervates thigh muscles quads.
innevates inner muscles of thigh adducter muscles
branches of sacral plexus:
innevates several muscles of the thigh leg and foot
wha is a dermatome?
area of skin innervated by cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve
skin of the upper limb is supplied by?
the nerves of the brachial plexus
skin of the lower limb is supplied by ?
nerves of the lumbar plexus and sacral plexus
what are shingles?
- herpes zoster
- painful viral infectionstems from childhood chicken pox
- brought on by stress
- common in people over 50
what are migrains?
- related to sensory innervation of cerebral ateries
- arteries dialate causing compression and irritation of sensory neve endings
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