unit 11

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unit 11
2011-12-10 00:37:33
unit 11

unit 11
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  1. ____ allows the CNS to _____ info and take _______.
    • nerves
    • receive
    • action
  2. what are the 2 ways sensory input is catagorized?
    • somatic
    • general somactic senses
  3. how are motoe output categorized?
  4. what are the general somatic senses?
    • pain
    • touch
    • temp
    • proprioception
  5. what are the special senses?
    • smell
    • taste
    • vision
    • hearing
    • equilibrium
  6. what is the autonomic nervous system?
    the viseral motor part of the PNS
  7. what do sensory receptors do?
    pick up stimuli from inside or outside of the body
  8. what arre motor endings?
    • axon terminals of motor neurns
    • they innervate effectors (muscles fibers)
  9. what are peripheral sensory receptors?
    • structures that pick up sensory stimuli
    • initiate signals in sensory axons
  10. what do mechanoreceptors do?
    resond to mechanical forces like sound
  11. what do thermoreceptors do?
    respond to temp change
  12. what do photoreceptors do?
    respond to light, located in the eye
  13. what do chemoreceptors do?
    respond to chemicals in solution
  14. what do nociceptors do?
    respond to harmful stimuli that result in pain
  15. what do proprioceptors do?
    monitor sttretch in muscles and tendons
  16. what are nerves?
    bundles of pheripheral axons
  17. what are fascicles?
    groups of axons boud into a bundle
  18. what is the endoneurium?
    layers of delicate connective tissue surrounding the mylein sheath and axon
  19. what is the perineurium?
    connective tissue that surrounds a nerve fascicle
  20. what is the epineurium?
    • outermost layer
    • the whole nerve is surrounded by this tough fibrous sheath
  21. what are ganglia?
    clusters of peripheral neuron cell bodies
  22. cranial nerves attach to the ____ and _____ through the _____ of the skull
    • brain
    • pass
    • foramina
  23. where do cranial nerves I and II attach to?
    the forebrain
  24. where do all the other cranial nerves attach to besides I and II?
    the brain stem
  25. what nerve is nick named "the wanderer" and where does it extend to?
    • vagus nerve
    • extends into the abdomen
  26. how many spinal nerves are there?
    where do they connect?
    • 31 pairs
    • connect to the spinal cord
  27. what are plexes?
    collection of spinal nerves in teh PNS
  28. cervical plexes function?
    innervates upper limb
  29. brachial plexus function?
    innervates upper limb
  30. lumbar plexus funtion?
    innervates lower limb
  31. sacral plexus funtion?
    innervates the lower limb
  32. how are spinal nerves named?
    by where they orginate on the spinal cord
  33. how do spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord?
    by the dorsal and ventral roots
  34. what do dorsal roots contain?
    sensory fibers
  35. where are the neuron cell bodies located?
    in the dorsal root ganglion
  36. what does the ventral root contain?
    motor fibers
  37. what do the spinal nerve bracn into?
    dorsal ramus and ventral ramus
  38. braches of cervical plexus:

    phrenic nerve?
    innevates the diaphragm
  39. branche of brachial plexus:
    innevates biceps brachii adn brachialis

    innervates deltoid

    innervates pectorils major and minor
  40. bracnhes of lumbar plexus:

    innervates thigh muscles quads.

    innevates inner muscles of thigh adducter muscles
  41. branches of sacral plexus:

    sciatic nerve?
    innevates several muscles of the thigh leg and foot
  42. wha is a dermatome?
    area of skin innervated by cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve
  43. skin of the upper limb is supplied by?
    the nerves of the brachial plexus
  44. skin of the lower limb is supplied by ?
    nerves of the lumbar plexus and sacral plexus
  45. what are shingles?
    • herpes zoster
    • painful viral infectionstems from childhood chicken pox
    • brought on by stress
    • common in people over 50
  46. what are migrains?
    • related to sensory innervation of cerebral ateries
    • arteries dialate causing compression and irritation of sensory neve endings