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Main Function of the cardiovascular system?
Transport materials throughtout the body
Components of the circulatory system (3)
carry blood away from the heart
Exchange vessels between tissues and circulation.
Return blood to heart
To lungs and back
Right side of heart
To body and back
Left side of heart
What kind of bloo do veins carry and where
Towards the heart
What kind of blood do arteries carry and where
Highly oxygentated blood
away fromn the heart.
R -L ventricles
Ensure one way flw through heart
Where are AV valves located
Between atria and ventricles
How does endurance trainning affect the autonomic nervous system
Results in a lower heart rate
Due to increase in parasympathetic stimulatin
& a ecrease in sympathetic stimulation
What are the major waves in ECG Inteval
QRS- Electrical activity through ventricle
1st sound on heart
Closing of the AV valves
2nd Sound of heart
Closing of semilunar valves
Which components determine CO Cardiac output
CO= HR x SV
HR= Beats per minute
SV= Mills per beat. (Amount being pumped pout per beat)
2 major factors that affect arterial blood pressure
Different methods to incresase venous return
Skeletal muscle pump
Heart poumps all blood returned to it
Increase blood in venous system
More blood pumped out
What does CO increase?
How does CO affect blood pressure
Blood Pressure is maintained by decreasing resistance by vasodilation.
How does Aerobic trainning affect CO
Increases it by increasing stroke volume
Aerobic trainnig affects which component of CO more
Stroke volume/ Increases it
What thre things increase stroke volume
1. Heart size increases- Holds more blood
2. Increase in blood volume- Greater venous return to heart. 3. Lower HR
Maximal oxygen consumption
Oxygen steady until demands for oxygen exceed the ability to deliver
Actual oxygen consumed
During INTENSE exercise which energy is used
During Long duration exercise which energy is used
Factors that characterize recovery from earobic exercise
Fast component- 3 seconds- several minutes
Slow component- up to 24 hrs.
Brain and spinal cord
Receive info prom PNS
Send outut signals through PNS
Afferent sensory neurons send info to CNS
Efferent neurons transmit messages from CNS to effector cells. (Muscles & Glands)
Structure and function of neurons
Dendrites- Receive incoming messages
Cell body- Contains nucleus, integrates incoming nucleus
Axons- Extensions from cell body that carry outgoing info.
Purpose of Myelination
Speeds up conduction of impulses along axon
Nodes of Ranvier
Non myelinated regions along axon
What causes electrical signaling in neurons?
Flow of charged ions along the mambrane
Result of a neuron
Caused by exchange of ions across neuron membrane
Part of brain associated w higher thinking
2 branches of autonomic nervous system
Parasympathetic- stimulation- rest and digest
Sympathetic-stimulation- Fight or flight response
How does exercise affect sympathetic system?
REgular exercise decreases sympathetic response
What branch of the peripheral nervous system controlsd skeletal muscles
Anaerobic vs Aerobic muscke size
Anaerobic- Increase size by ading more myofibrils/ fiber
Aerobic- Increase # of muscle fibers
Aerobic vs Anaerobic (Blood supply to muscle)
Aerobic- Increases # of capillaries/ muscle cell
Anaerobic- decreases # of cappilaries/ muscle cell DUE TO increased muscle.
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic (Mitochondria muscle cell)
Aerobic- Increases for aerobic trainning
Anaerobic - Is small to make room for other functions.
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic
)- athletes have motor units fire asynchronously (
) to prevent individual fibers from fatiguing.
- Athletes have motor units fire all at once.
to maximise powet.
Cardiovascular & Neuro System