Bio Final

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  1. Main Function of the cardiovascular system?
    Transport materials throughtout the body
  2. Components of the circulatory system (3)
    • Blood
    • Heart
    • ArterialSystem
    • Capillaries
    • Venous System
  3. Arterial System
    • Delivery vessels
    • carry blood away from the heart
  4. Capillaries
    Exchange vessels between tissues and circulation.
  5. Venous System
    • Return vessels
    • Return blood to heart
  6. Pumonary Circulation
    • To lungs and back
    • Right side of heart
  7. Systemic
    • To body and back
    • Left side of heart
  8. What kind of bloo do veins carry and where
    • Poorly oxygenated
    • Towards the heart
  9. What kind of blood do arteries carry and where
    • Highly oxygentated blood
    • away fromn the heart.
  10. Chambers
    • 2 atriums
    • 2 ventricles
  11. Atriums R-L
    Collecting chambers
  12. R -L ventricles
    Pumping chambers
  13. Valves
    Ensure one way flw through heart
  14. Where are AV valves located
    Between atria and ventricles
  15. How does endurance trainning affect the autonomic nervous system
    • Results in a lower heart rate
    • Due to increase in parasympathetic stimulatin
    • & a ecrease in sympathetic stimulation
  16. What are the major waves in ECG Inteval
    • P- Atrium
    • QRS- Electrical activity through ventricle
    • T- Reset

    • R-T= Systole
    • T-R= Diastolic
  17. 1st sound on heart
    Closing of the AV valves
  18. 2nd Sound of heart
    Closing of semilunar valves
  19. Which components determine CO Cardiac output
    CO= HR x SV

    • HR= Beats per minute
    • SV= Mills per beat. (Amount being pumped pout per beat)
  20. 2 major factors that affect arterial blood pressure
    • Vasoconstriction
    • Vasoilation
  21. Different methods to incresase venous return
    • Skeletal muscle pump
    • Respiratory pump
    • Sympathetic innervation
  22. Franks Law
    • Heart poumps all blood returned to it
    • Increase blood in venous system
    • More blood pumped out
    • CO increases
  23. What does CO increase?
    • HR
    • SV
  24. How does CO affect blood pressure
    Blood Pressure is maintained by decreasing resistance by vasodilation.
  25. How does Aerobic trainning affect CO
    Increases it by increasing stroke volume
  26. Aerobic trainnig affects which component of CO more
    Stroke volume/ Increases it
  27. What thre things increase stroke volume
    • 1. Heart size increases- Holds more blood
    • 2. Increase in blood volume- Greater venous return to heart. 3. Lower HR
  28. VO2
    Oxygen uptake
  29. VO2 max
    Maximal oxygen consumption
  30. Oxygen deficit
    Oxygen steady until demands for oxygen exceed the ability to deliver
  31. Consumption
    Actual oxygen consumed
  32. During INTENSE exercise which energy is used
  33. During Long duration exercise which energy is used
  34. Factors that characterize recovery from earobic exercise
    • Fast component- 3 seconds- several minutes
    • Slow component- up to 24 hrs.
  35. CNS
    • Brain and spinal cord
    • Receive info prom PNS
    • Send outut signals through PNS
  36. PNS
    • Afferent sensory neurons send info to CNS
    • Efferent neurons transmit messages from CNS to effector cells. (Muscles & Glands)
  37. Structure and function of neurons
    • Dendrites- Receive incoming messages
    • Cell body- Contains nucleus, integrates incoming nucleus
    • Axons- Extensions from cell body that carry outgoing info.
  38. Purpose of Myelination
    Speeds up conduction of impulses along axon
  39. Nodes of Ranvier
    Non myelinated regions along axon
  40. What causes electrical signaling in neurons?
    Flow of charged ions along the mambrane
  41. Action potential
    • Result of a neuron
    • Caused by exchange of ions across neuron membrane
  42. Part of brain associated w higher thinking
    Frontal lobe
  43. 2 branches of autonomic nervous system
    • Parasympathetic- stimulation- rest and digest
    • Sympathetic-stimulation- Fight or flight response
  44. How does exercise affect sympathetic system?
    REgular exercise decreases sympathetic response
  45. What branch of the peripheral nervous system controlsd skeletal muscles
  46. Anaerobic vs Aerobic muscke size
    • Anaerobic- Increase size by ading more myofibrils/ fiber
    • Aerobic- Increase # of muscle fibers
  47. Aerobic vs Anaerobic (Blood supply to muscle)
    • Aerobic- Increases # of capillaries/ muscle cell
    • Anaerobic- decreases # of cappilaries/ muscle cell DUE TO increased muscle.
  48. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic (Mitochondria muscle cell)
    • Aerobic- Increases for aerobic trainning
    • Anaerobic - Is small to make room for other functions.
  49. Neuromucular adaptations
    Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic
    Aerobic (Endurance)- athletes have motor units fire asynchronously (ALTERNATING) to prevent individual fibers from fatiguing.

    Anaerobic (Strength)- Athletes have motor units fire all at once. (SYNCHRONOUSLY) to maximise powet.
Card Set
Bio Final
Cardiovascular & Neuro System
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