Chapter 26 Basic Nutrition

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copperkid2
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122374
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Chapter 26 Basic Nutrition
Updated:
2011-12-10 02:01:14
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Basic Nutrition and Cultural Considerations
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  1. Primary digestive organs
    • mouth
    • teeth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • anus
  2. Secondary digestive organs
    • salivary gland
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
  3. Nutrition
    • provides energy
    • regulates body processes
    • builds, maintains and repairs tissue
  4. Liver
    • creates and secretes bile into the small intestines
    • major player in the digestion of fats, carbs and proteins
  5. Digestive changes that occur with aging
    • decreased ability to chew normally (dental issues)
    • decreased sense of taste (appetite loss)
    • decreased gag reflex (aspiration risk)
    • decreased muscle tone at sphincters may cause heartburn or esophogeal reflux
    • decreased gastric secretions affect food digestion
    • decreased peristalsis may increase risk of constipation or bowel impaction
  6. Parotid glands
    • Largest salivary glands
    • secrete saliva into mouth
    • begins digestion of starches
  7. Stomach
    • capacity of 1.5L
    • begins dibestion of proteins
    • Absorbs B12
    • Changes food to semiliquid
  8. Small intestine
    • mixes food with secretions from liver and pancreas
    • finishes digestions
    • asbsorbs nutrients
  9. Large intestine
    • absorbs fluids and electrolytes
    • eliminates waste
  10. Metabolism
    • large molecules broken down
    • makes energy available
    • enables absorbed nutrients to enter blood stream through digestion
  11. Protein
    • needed to rebuild and replace tissue
    • role in hormone production, fluid balance, antibody production and nutrient transport
    • 4 calories/gram
    • made of 9 essential and 11 non-essential amino acids
  12. Six nutrients essential for normal function are..
    • proteins
    • carbs
    • fats
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
  13. Amino acids
    • 9 essential (body can't produce)
    • 11 nonessential (liver produces)
    • All essential and nonessential are needed to build proteins
  14. Complete proteins...
    • contain all 9 essential amino acids
    • animal sources (fish, milk, eggs, red meat)
    • soy beans
  15. Complementary complete protein
    • combining various plant sources to get all 9 essential amino acids
    • beans and rice
    • peanut butter sandwiches
  16. Protein intake
    • 10 - 15% of of daily calories
    • avg DRI of 46 - 56 g of protein
    • DRI = 0.8 x weight in kg
  17. marasmus
    • form of protein energy and nutrient malnutrition
    • occurs in the first year of life
    • growth retardation and wasting of subcutaneous fat and muscle
  18. Kwashiorkor
    • condition occuring in infants and young children after weaning from breast milk
    • protein deficiency
  19. Vegeterian diet benefits and deficiencies
    • reduced risk of heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity
    • deficiency of B6, B12, iron, zinc, riboflavin and vitamin D
  20. Carbohydrates
    • make up 50 - 60% of recommended intake
    • 4 calories/gram
    • regulate protein and fat metabolism
    • fight infection
    • promotes growth of body tissue
  21. 3 types of Carbs
    • simple
    • complex (should be 90% of intake)
    • fiber
  22. Fiber
    • portion of carb that can't be broken down by digestion
    • increases bulk in stool
    • may decrease fat absorption
    • 21 - 38 grams/day
  23. Fat
    • 9 calories/gram
    • source of fatty acids
    • transports fat soluble vitamins and phytonutrients
    • role in transmission of nerve impulses
  24. Compostion of fats
    • either saturated or unsaturated
    • triglycerides
    • most oils are unsaturated
  25. 3 essential fatty acids
    • linoleic acid (corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil)
    • oleic acid (olive oil and beef)
    • linolenic acid (green leafies, walnuts, pecans, soy products)
  26. Vitamins
    • fat soluble:
    • A, D, E and K
    • absorbed in small intestine and stored in liver
    • may become poisonous if too much is ingested
    • water-soluble:
    • easily absorbed into bloodstream
    • B -complex and vitamin C
  27. Minerals
    • Inorganics found in animals and plants
    • needed for metabolism and cellular function
    • divided into major and trace
  28. Major minerals
    • calcium
    • magnesium
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • phosporous
    • chlorine
    • sulfur
  29. Minor minerals
    • iron
    • copper
    • iodine
    • manganese
    • cobalt
    • zinc
    • molybdenum
    • selenium
    • flouride
    • chromium
  30. Infants
    • Should double birth weight by 6 months and triple weight by 1 year
    • introduce solids at 4 - 6 months
  31. Toddlers and preschool
    • 2 - 5 years
    • consume less milk and increase solids
    • try colorful foods (peas, carrots)
    • avoid combining foods
    • avoid force feeding
    • provide easily chewed foods

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