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  1. Extremity fracture.
    Blood loss, nerve and blood vessel injury.
  2. Blunt force trauma to the abdomen.
    Compromise of body functions, hemorrhage or spillage of organ contents into body cavity.
  3. Blunt force trauma to the chest.
    Compromise of body functions, hemorrhage, or spillage of organs contents into body cavity.
  4. Extremity fractures.
    Pain, swelling, sometimes deformity.
  5. Blunt force trauma to the abdomen.
    Skin may appear reddened at site of blow, main clue may be mechanism of injury.
  6. Blunt force trauma to the chest.
    Skin may appear reddened at side of blow, may include made the mechanism of injury.
  7. Anterior dislocation of the hip.
    Entire lower limb is rotated outward and hip is usually flexed.
  8. Posterior dislocation of the hip.
    leg is rotated inward, hip flexed, knee bent. Patient unable to flex foot or lift toes. Lack of sensation in limb.
  9. G. I. Bleeding, both upper and lower.
    • Upper- bright red blood in emesis, coffee ground like emesis, black or tarry stools, dark blood mixed with stool
    • lower- black /tarry stool, dark blood mixed with stool, stool mixed or coated with bright red blood.
  10. Partial airway obstruction.
    Unusual breath sounds, cyanosis, change in breathing pattern.
  11. Complete airway obstruction.
    Unable to speak or cough, clutching at the neck, no rise or fall of the chest, no air exchange of the nose or mouth, unsuccessful artificial ventilation.
  12. Tension pneumothorax.
    Juggler vein's in neck may become distended, signs of shock, trachea may shift to obsess side (this is a late sign).
  13. h. and cold injuries.
    swelling at the site, complaint of pain.
  14. Heat injuries.
    More, they'll, normal to cool skin, muscular cramps, weakness, rapid shallow breathing, weak pulse, heavy perspiration.
  15. Cold injuries.
    Light skin reddens, dark skin lightens, both then whiten, shivering, difficulty speaking- later patients have muscle coordination affected, trouble concentrating- even later holes and respirations slow, cardiac dysrhythmias may develop, patient loses consciousness.
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