A method useful for STERILIZING FOODS such as strawberries and vegetables; or, pre-packed baby bottles, baby pacifiers and such is:
Since it does NOT penetrate materials such as glass or liquids very well, _?_ is used primarily to sterilize surfaces and air.
An agent used to reduce the number of bacteria on a BED PAN would most accurately be called a(n):
A chemical or process that reduces the number of microorganisms on SKIN SURFACES or something used to treat a wOUND is called a(n):
Disinfection of body discharges takes longer than other materials because they usually contain:
Although this agent is RARELY longer used in clinical settings, it is still used to test the efficiency of new chemicals by comparison under identical test conditions.
Sterilization is used to eliminate the following types of microorganisms:
Viruses, Fungi, Bacteria, Spores
Boiling is NOT reliable for sterilization because it will does not:
Kill bacterial spores
Which of the following concentration of alcohol is most effective in controlling microbes?
Merthiolate and mercurochrome are examples of:
Heavy metal compounds
Which of the following is NOT TRUE of phenol:
FALSE: Is an example of a heavy metal; acts by damaging the plasma membrane
TRUE: Bactericidal at high concentration; used in some throat lozenges, First antiseptic used (Lister); later found to be a carcinogen, Modified derivatives (phenolics) less toxic, Used as a comparison for new disinfectants
Which of the following is NOT true of phenols?
FALSE: a gas form used to fumigate
TRUE: Acts by denaturing proteins, At low concentration is bacteriostatic, Modified derivatives are less toxic, Standard for new disinfectants
What is an effective procedure for sterilizing liquids that might be damaged by autoclaving (assuming no mycoplasma/ureaplasma).
Filtration 0.01 um
Pyrogens are the dead bodies of gram negative bacteria. The FDA requires that labware be "acid" treated to remove pyrogens before any drug is prepared with these containers. What is the internal effect of a pyrogen contaminated drug?
It is an endotoxin
It causes fever and inflammation
Why does 70% ethanol have better antimicrobial activity than 100% ethanol?
Ethanol requires water to denature proteins
The chemical in bleach responsible for its antimicrobial activity is:
Bactericidal; Requires water & time
The best way to sterilize a used washed plastic syringe is to use:
Ethylene oxide (gas)
Which of the following MAY NOT EVER achieve complete sterility (remember the Mycoplasma)?
Filtration at 0.001 um and US pasteurization
Ethylene oxide is frequently used:
To sterilize rubber goods and delicate surgical equipment
Most antibiotics are derived from:
Culture in which certain bacteria have grown
Which one of the following best describes the term "selective toxicity" regarding drugs?
More toxic to bacteria than host cells
Which one of the following statements best describes a SEMI SYNTHETIC ANTIBIOTIC:
Chemically modified from a natural source
In the treatment of infectious diseases, COMBINATION THERAPY describes:
Simultaneous use of multiple chemotherapeutic agents
If an antimicrobial agent is "BACTERIOSTATIC" this means:
Multiplication of microorganisms will resume upon removal of the agent
SYNERGISM of antibiotics refers to:
[ NOA ]
FALSE: enhanced therapeutic results when two antibodies are given simultaneously, harmful to "target" without harming host, range of activity to different microorganisms, a type of toxicity
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism by which microorganisms exhibit resistance to drugs:
microorganisms mutate because of the drug
What do cycloserine, bacitracin, penicillin, and cephalothin all have in common?
Inhibit cell wall synthesis
Who is usually credited with the discovery of penicillin?
Technically, who should be known as the FATHER of penicillin?
Antibiotic resistance develops in an organism as a direct result of:
The presence of (this bacterial component) enables penicillin to be selectively toxic to bacterial cells and not to mammalian cells.
Why don't antimicrobial drugs that act on protein synthesis affect eukaryote cells?
Different kind of ribosomes
The "D-value" on a label of disinfectant indicates:
The time required to reduce the number of microbes on a treated area by 90% at a specified temperature
Which of the following classes of antimicrobial drugs inhibits cell membrane functions?
Polymixins and Polyenes
Why are the polyenes, which are used to treat fungal infections, relatively toxic to humans?
The cell membranes of fungal and protozoal & animal cells contain similar membrane sterols
Sulfonamides as a class of antimicrobials can best be described as acting as:
An analog of Vitamin B6 that is used to treat tuberculosis:
Diseases caused by microbial products in which the microbe itself is not present in the diseased host is:
Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious agents