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How is a message sent
- 1. Dendrite reveives message
- 2. Message reaches the axon hillcock
- 3. Once fired, the messages speeds across the axon due to myelin.
- 4. Message jumps from one Node of Ranvier to the mext thru Saltatory conduction5. Message reaches the terminal buttons and crossed the synaptic cleft.
How is the massage sent?
An electrochemical imulse tht travels across the neuron is known as the action potential.
Action potential moves info across the neuron.
K+ leaves and begins to exit membrane
Occurs when too much K+ leaves membrane
Membrane returns to resting stage.
- Made up of presynaptic endings. (Axon buttons) Synaptic cleft & Postsynaptic endings. (Receptor sites of neighboring axons)
- At the synaptic Cleft:
- Neurotransmitters stored in vesicles are secreted into the synaptic cleft.
- Neurotransmitters are like keys and only fit certain receptor sites (locks)
- The msg is electro-chemical, a combination of electric impulse which releases chemical neurotransmitter to cont msg.
Terminall button contains vesicles which hold ___
Neurotransmitters (chemical msgs)
Preoperational Stage Age
Concrete operational stage age
Formal operational Stage Age
11 yrs and up
Sensorimotor Stage Milestones
Object permanance- Awareness that an object still continues to exist even when it is not present.
Preoperational Stage Milestones
Anim ism- everything has some sort of conscience
Co0ncrete operational Milestones
Formal Operational Milestones
- Scientific reasoning
- POtential to make moral judgements
Law of similarity
Grouping like w like
Law of Proximity
Grouping due to closeness of objects to each other
Law of good continuation
Grouping things so they seem to continue
Law of Pragnanz (closure)
Grouping that gives the perception of the simplest objects possible.
(Triangl in circles EXAMPLE)
- Sleep Apnea
- Circadian Rhythm Sleep disorders
- Stop breathing
- Emergency hormones cause a person to wake in order to begin breathing.
Circadian Rhythm DisrodersTypes
- Sleep wake cycle is not in sync w the sched imposed by their environment.
- Delayed sleep phase rest
- Jet lag
- Shift work type
- Unspecified type
Excessively deep or prolonged sleep cycle
- Difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep.
- * People seem to overestimate amount of sleep lost.
- Nightmare disorder
- REM sleep behavior disorder
- Sleep terror disorder
- Sleep walking disroder
- Frightening dreams recurrently
- Repeated awakenings w vivid detail
- Awakwening occur during second half of sleep
- Person is oriented and alert upon awakening
REM Sleep behavior disorder
- Paralysis that norally occurs during seep is absent
- Act out dreams
Sleep Terror Sidorder
- Recurrent episodes of abrupt awakening w a cry of terror. FEAr behavior
- May not respond to confort
- Difficulty to arouse
- Little or no knowledge of dream after awakening
Opiates aka Narcotics
- Diminish physiccal sensation and capacity to respond to stimuli by depressng the CNS.
- Increase alertness
Typically cause a release of norepinephrine, dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin.
- Psychedelics- main effect is to change perceptual experience.
Reinforcement is provided each time a behavior is made
Weakes behacioral response
Fixed Ratio FR Schedule
Reinforcement provided after a fixed # of responses.
The higher the ratio the higher the num of responses
Less prone to extinction than continuous
Fixed Interval FI Schedule
- Organism is reinforced to its response after a crtain amount of time has passed since its last renforcement.
- F12 = reinforcement occurs after 2 mins
- Organism will pause after reinforcement
- Increase in amount of responding as end of interval approaches.
Variable interval VI Sched
- Reinforcement depends on certain intervals having elapsed.
- Intervals duration varies unpredictably.
Variable Ratio VR Schedule
Car sales man
- # of responses needed to receive reinforcement varies each trial.
- No pauses in responding
- generate high rates of respoinding.
- Minimal extinction
3 types of memory
- Short term
- Long Term
Short term memory
- 7 items or less (Chunking for more memory)
- Readily available
- Be abel to recall convo till its over
- 10-15 secs to 1 min
- Shortest term
- Look at something for a sec and remember what it looked like.
- (Stimuli ...5 senses)
- U don't forget it.
- Can be consciously recalled
- 911 Particular time
* Knowing WHAT
- Info of various sorts
- Riding horse, flying a plane.
3 Stages of memory
- Encoding Stage
- Storage Stage
- Retrieval Stage
- Environmental info translated into meaningful entity
- Failure means not prperly encoding into to begin w
Working memory Span
7 give or take 2
- Joel rides horses
Joe rides horses
- Joes rides horses
- (Ride horses)
The hungry dragon ate soup
- the hungry dragon-Noun phrase
- Ate soup- verb phrase
- Dragon- subject
Genetic Facrots of Obesity
Components of Emotion
- Cognitive appraisal
- Subjective experience
- Thought and action tendencies
- Internal bodily changes
- Facial ExpressionsResponse to emotion
A persons assessment of the personal meaning of his or her current state.
the effective state or feeling tone that the emotion brings.
Thought and action tendencies
Urges to think and act in certain ways.
Internal bodily changes
Phsiological responses, especially those involving the autonomic system such as changes in sweat gland and heart rate activity.
- –Muscle contractions that move
- facial landmarks – like cheeks, lips, nose, and brow – into certain
Response to emotion
- –How people regulate, react to, or
- cope with their own emotion or the situation that triggered it
(IQ) = Mental age
(MA)/Chronological age (CA) x 100
–IQ = MA/CA x 100
•Under 70 [mentally retarded] --2.2%
•70-80 [borderline retarded] --6.7%
•80-90 [low average] -- 16.1%
•90-110 [average] -- 50%
•110-120 [high average] -- 16.1%
•120-130 [superior] -- 6.7%
•Over 130 [very superior] -- 2.2%
•If Randall’s MA is 17 and his CA is 38, what
is his IQ? 44
•If Rachel’s MA is 44 and she is 35, what is
her IQ? 126
- The ability to perceive visual or spatial information,
- modify it,
- and recreate visual images
- without reference to
- original stimulus. 3-D rotation.
- The ability to use all or part of the body to solve problems or fashion products;
- includes control over fine and gross motor action and ability to manipulate external objects
The ability to distinguish among one’s own feelings, intentions, and motivations
The ability to recognize and make distinctions among other perople’s feelings, intentions, and motivations
Internal conflicts Types 4
- Independence vs.Dependence
- Intimacy vs.Isolation
- Cooperation vs.Competition
- Expression of impulses vs. Moral standards
Do we let others take care of us or care for selves?
Do we get close tosomeone or stay away because we can be hurt?
Cooperation vs. Competition
Do we help or compete?
Expression of impulses vs. Moral standards
Do we act out our urges or follow the cultural standards?
Social Facilitation: Coaction
•The interaction between individuals performing the same task
- –Occurs in both animals and humans
- Children wind a fishing reel
- faster when other children are performing the same task
- •Derailingeffects of coactors and audiences on an
- individuals performance
- –Speed and accuracy of performance
- is impaired for complex or poorly learned tasks
- •Roaches run easy route more quickly, but complex route more slowly when watched by other roaches
- •When an individual’s contribution to a collective activity cannot be evaluated, individuals often work less hard than they would alone.
- –E.g. noise produced by each person cheering decreases asgroup size increases
•People are less likely to help in a situation when others are present
- Defining the situation as a nonemergency.
- •Everybody in group misleads everybody else by defining the situation as a nonemergency
–Diffusion of responsibility to act
•Because each person realizes others are present, the burden of responsibility does not liesolely with him/her
Informational Social Influences
•We conform because we believe other people’s interpretations of an ambiguous situation are more correct than our own
Normative Social Influences
- •We conform to a group’s social norms or typical behaviors to become liked or accepted
- –Social norms = Implicit rules or expectations that dictate what we ought to think or how we ought to behave
- DINNER TABLE
•In groups, minorities can move majorities toward their point of view if they present a consistent position without appearing rigid, dogmatic, or arrogant
Effective Minotity Influence
- –Consistent in its position
- –Flexible in style of presentation
- –Otherwise similar to majority
- –Not appear to be driven by self-interest