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  1. Dendrites
    Receives message
  2. How is a message sent
    • 1. Dendrite reveives message
    • 2. Message reaches the axon hillcock
    • 3. Once fired, the messages speeds across the axon due to myelin.
    • 4. Message jumps from one Node of Ranvier to the mext thru Saltatory conduction
    • 5. Message reaches the terminal buttons and crossed the synaptic cleft.
  3. How is the massage sent?
    An electrochemical imulse tht travels across the neuron is known as the action potential.

    Action potential moves info across the neuron.
  4. Repolorization
    K+ leaves and begins to exit membrane
  5. Hyperolarization
    Occurs when too much K+ leaves membrane

    Membrane returns to resting stage.
  6. Synapse
    • Made up of presynaptic endings. (Axon buttons) Synaptic cleft & Postsynaptic endings. (Receptor sites of neighboring axons)
    • At the synaptic Cleft:
    • Neurotransmitters stored in vesicles are secreted into the synaptic cleft.
    • Neurotransmitters are like keys and only fit certain receptor sites (locks)
    • The msg is electro-chemical, a combination of electric impulse which releases chemical neurotransmitter to cont msg.
  7. Terminall button contains vesicles which hold ___
    Neurotransmitters (chemical msgs)
  8. Sensorimotor Age
  9. Preoperational Stage Age
  10. Concrete operational stage age
  11. Formal operational Stage Age
    11 yrs and up
  12. Sensorimotor Stage Milestones
    Object permanance- Awareness that an object still continues to exist even when it is not present.
  13. Preoperational Stage Milestones

    Anim ism- everything has some sort of conscience
  14. Co0ncrete operational Milestones
  15. Formal Operational Milestones
    • Scientific reasoning
    • POtential to make moral judgements
  16. Law of similarity
    Grouping like w like
  17. Law of Proximity
    Grouping due to closeness of objects to each other
  18. Law of good continuation
    Grouping things so they seem to continue
  19. Law of Pragnanz (closure)
    Grouping that gives the perception of the simplest objects possible.

    (Triangl in circles EXAMPLE)
  20. Dysomnias
    • Sleep Apnea
    • Circadian Rhythm Sleep disorders
    • Hypersonmia
    • Insomnia
    • Narcolepsy
  21. Apnea
    • Stop breathing
    • Emergency hormones cause a person to wake in order to begin breathing.
  22. Circadian Rhythm DisrodersTypes
    • Sleep wake cycle is not in sync w the sched imposed by their environment.
    • Types:
    • Delayed sleep phase rest
    • Jet lag
    • Shift work type
    • Unspecified type
  23. Hypersomnia
    Excessively deep or prolonged sleep cycle
  24. Insomnia
    • Difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep.
    • * People seem to overestimate amount of sleep lost.
  25. Parasomnias Types
    • Nightmare disorder
    • REM sleep behavior disorder
    • Sleep terror disorder
    • Sleep walking disroder
  26. Nightmare Disorder
    • Frightening dreams recurrently
    • Repeated awakenings w vivid detail
    • Awakwening occur during second half of sleep
    • Person is oriented and alert upon awakening
  27. REM Sleep behavior disorder
    • Paralysis that norally occurs during seep is absent
    • Act out dreams
  28. Sleep Terror Sidorder
    • Recurrent episodes of abrupt awakening w a cry of terror. FEAr behavior
    • May not respond to confort
    • Difficulty to arouse
    • Little or no knowledge of dream after awakening
  29. Depressants
    • Tranquilizers
    • Barbituates
    • Inhalants
    • Alcohol
  30. Opiates aka Narcotics
    • Diminish physiccal sensation and capacity to respond to stimuli by depressng the CNS.
    • Codeine
    • Heroin
    • Morphine

  31. Stimulants
    • Increase alertness
    • Amphetamines
    • Cocaine
    • Nicotine
    • Caffeine

    Typically cause a release of norepinephrine, dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin.
  32. Hallucinogens
    • Psychedelics- main effect is to change perceptual experience.
    • LSD
    • PCP
    • MDMA
  33. Cannibis
    • Psychoactive
    • MArijuana
    • Hashuish
    • THC
  34. Contnuous Schedule
  35. Reinforcement is provided each time a behavior is made
    Weakes behacioral response
  36. Fixed Ratio FR Schedule
    Reinforcement provided after a fixed # of responses.

    The higher the ratio the higher the num of responses

    Less prone to extinction than continuous
  37. Fixed Interval FI Schedule
    Mail Box
    • Organism is reinforced to its response after a crtain amount of time has passed since its last renforcement.
    • F12 = reinforcement occurs after 2 mins
    • Organism will pause after reinforcement
    • Increase in amount of responding as end of interval approaches.
  38. Variable interval VI Sched
    • Reinforcement depends on certain intervals having elapsed.
    • Intervals duration varies unpredictably.
  39. Variable Ratio VR Schedule
    Slot Machines
    Car sales man
    • # of responses needed to receive reinforcement varies each trial.
    • No pauses in responding
    • generate high rates of respoinding.
    • Minimal extinction
  40. 3 types of memory
    • Sensory
    • Short term
    • Long Term
  41. Short term memory
    • 7 items or less (Chunking for more memory)
    • Readily available
    • Be abel to recall convo till its over
    • 10-15 secs to 1 min
  42. Sensory
    • Shortest term
    • Look at something for a sec and remember what it looked like.
    • (Stimuli ...5 senses)
  43. Long Term
    • Lifetime
    • U don't forget it.
  44. Explicit Memory
    • Can be consciously recalled
    • 911 Particular time
    • Conscious

    * Knowing WHAT
  45. Implicit Memory
    • Info of various sorts
    • Riding horse, flying a plane.
    • Unconscious
  46. 3 Stages of memory
    • Encoding Stage
    • Storage Stage
    • Retrieval Stage
  47. Encoding Stage
    • Environmental info translated into meaningful entity
    • Failure means not prperly encoding into to begin w
  48. Working memory Span
    7 give or take 2
  49. Noun
    • Person
    • Joel rides horses
    • (Joel)
  50. Verb phrase
    Joe rides horses
    • action
    • Joes rides horses
    • (Ride horses)
  51. The hungry dragon ate soup
    • the hungry dragon-Noun phrase
    • Ate soup- verb phrase
    • Dragon- subject
  52. Predicate
    what was done
  53. Genetic Facrots of Obesity
  54. Components of Emotion
    • Cognitive appraisal
    • Subjective experience
    • Thought and action tendencies
    • Internal bodily changes
    • Facial ExpressionsResponse to emotion
  55. Cognitive appraisal
    A persons assessment of the personal meaning of his or her current state.
  56. Subjective Experience
    the effective state or feeling tone that the emotion brings.
  57. Thought and action tendencies
    Urges to think and act in certain ways.
  58. Internal bodily changes
    Phsiological responses, especially those involving the autonomic system such as changes in sweat gland and heart rate activity.
  59. Facial Expressions
    • –Muscle contractions that move
    • facial landmarks – like cheeks, lips, nose, and brow – into certain
    • configurations
  60. Response to emotion
    • –How people regulate, react to, or
    • cope with their own emotion or the situation that triggered it
  61. (IQ) = Mental age
    (MA)/Chronological age (CA) x 100

    –IQ = MA/CA x 100

    •Under 70 [mentally retarded] --2.2%
    •70-80 [borderline retarded] --6.7%
    •80-90 [low average] -- 16.1%
    •90-110 [average] -- 50%
    •110-120 [high average] -- 16.1%
    •120-130 [superior] -- 6.7%
    •Over 130 [very superior] -- 2.2%
    •If Randall’s MA is 17 and his CA is 38, what
    is his IQ? 44
    •If Rachel’s MA is 44 and she is 35, what is
    her IQ? 126
  62. Spatial
    • The ability to perceive visual or spatial information,
    • modify it,
    • and recreate visual images
    • without reference to
    • original stimulus. 3-D rotation.
  63. bodily Kinesthetic
    • The ability to use all or part of the body to solve problems or fashion products;
    • includes control over fine and gross motor action and ability to manipulate external objects
  64. Intrapersonal
    The ability to distinguish among one’s own feelings, intentions, and motivations
  65. Interpersonal
    The ability to recognize and make distinctions among other perople’s feelings, intentions, and motivations
  66. Internal conflicts Types 4
    • Independence vs.Dependence
    • Intimacy vs.Isolation
    • Cooperation vs.Competition
    • Expression of impulses vs. Moral standards
  67. Independence vs.Dependence
    Do we let others take care of us or care for selves?
  68. Intimacy vs.Isolation
    Do we get close tosomeone or stay away because we can be hurt?
  69. Cooperation vs. Competition
    Do we help or compete?
  70. Expression of impulses vs. Moral standards
    Do we act out our urges or follow the cultural standards?
  71. Social Facilitation: Coaction
    •The interaction between individuals performing the same task

    • –Occurs in both animals and humans
    • Children wind a fishing reel
    • faster when other children are performing the same task
  72. Social Inhibition
    • •Derailingeffects of coactors and audiences on an
    • individuals performance
    • –Speed and accuracy of performance
    • is impaired for complex or poorly learned tasks
    • •Roaches run easy route more quickly, but complex route more slowly when watched by other roaches
  73. Social Loafing
    • •When an individual’s contribution to a collective activity cannot be evaluated, individuals often work less hard than they would alone.
    • –E.g. noise produced by each person cheering decreases asgroup size increases
  74. Bystander Effect
    •People are less likely to help in a situation when others are present
  75. Pluralistic Ignorance
    • Defining the situation as a nonemergency.
    • Everybody in group misleads everybody else by defining the situation as a nonemergency
  76. –Diffusion of responsibility to act
    •Because each person realizes others are present, the burden of responsibility does not liesolely with him/her
  77. Informational Social Influences
    •We conform because we believe other people’s interpretations of an ambiguous situation are more correct than our own
  78. Normative Social Influences
    • •We conform to a group’s social norms or typical behaviors to become liked or accepted
    • –Social norms = Implicit rules or expectations that dictate what we ought to think or how we ought to behave
  79. Minority Influences
    •In groups, minorities can move majorities toward their point of view if they present a consistent position without appearing rigid, dogmatic, or arrogant
  80. Effective Minotity Influence
    • –Forceful
    • –Consistent in its position
    • –Flexible in style of presentation
    • –Otherwise similar to majority
    • –Not appear to be driven by self-interest
  81. 15,
Card Set:
2011-12-15 04:38:12
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Psychology 101
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