BIOGEO TEST 4

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ichiban2008
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122389
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BIOGEO TEST 4
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2011-12-14 21:18:02
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biology geography
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TEST 4
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  1. Aerography
    • description
    • looking at the arial component and analyzing it
  2. Choropleth Maps
    • maps on which geographic distribution of species are delineated by continous shading or circuscribed by lines
    • popular because they rapidly convey a general impression of the geographic areas in which the species is found and the areas in whicn it is absent

    DOWNSIDE

    • present the illusion that the plant or animals is distributed evenly and continuously throughout the shaded area
    • this does not occur in nature
    • with-in the map boundary of the species there will be areas of high and low population density
  3. Range & Range Collapse
    Range

    geographic area permanently occupied by a plant or animal taxon

    Range Collapse

    the linked phenomena of population decline and geographic range decline that is very typical of endangered species
  4. Amphireogional
    Having a biogeographic distribution that is divided by a barrier into distinct regions
  5. Circumpolar
    Having a geographic distibution that circulated the polar regions
  6. Pantropical
    Having a geographic distibution across the tropical regions
  7. Disjunct distribution
    • Same pop separate by something
    • Exist in two places, but not in the middle…sort of

    • Caused by:
    • Jump dispersal
    • External event:
    • Plate tectonics
    • Flood
    • Climate change
  8. Habitat Heterogenity
    • Areas of a forest that are not homogeneous
    • (similar)
    • Usually due to some type of disturbance:
    • Fire
    • Human
    • Topographic

    • Get more diversity
    • New areas popping up after bring new biodiversity
    • Low resource gradient causes less diversity
    • High “ more “
  9. Rapoports Rule
    the general pattern of decreasing range sizes of plant and animal taxa that live near the equator compared to those that live in higher latitudes
  10. Hollow Curve Distribution
    a typical distribution of species ranges, consisting of many species with small ranges and few species with large ranges
  11. Temperate
    • Having a geographic distribution in the temperate mid latitude regions of the world
    • Climatic component of one biome or region
    • Temperate environ in contrast with other regions
  12. Vicariance Event
    Geologic events or environmental changes that divide the ranges of species into geographically isolated distributions
  13. Species Turnover
    changes in the species represented at different sites or getween different time periods at the same site
  14. Species Relaxation
    • the decline in species richness that occurs when a region, such as a landgridge island, is curoff from a larger landmass or area of similar habitat
    • also occurs when land clearance produces small reserves in place of one extensive areas of natural habitat
  15. Nestedness
    • the general tendency for the biota on islands to contain a subset of the flora and fauna found on nearby larger islands or continents
    • Idea that things exist as a subset of other things
    • Applied to island habitats:
    • Species composition of an island would be a subset of
    • mainland source area
  16. Target Area Effect
    the observed positive relationship between island size and immigration rates due to the fact that larger islands proide a bigger target for dispersing organisms

    • Two different types of circles things
    • Which will have higher biodiversity
  17. Rescue Effect
    occurs when small populations of a species are rescued from the brink of extinction by the arrival of new immigrants of the same species

    Increase immigration causes decrease is distribution

    • Survey an island
    • Species x is there year one
    • Species x is there year 10
    • Maybe they went extinct though and were “rescued” by more coming from the mainland
    • Causes skewness in survey
    • We think they are stable and doing fine
    • No, they are being “rescued”
  18. Peninsula Effect
    species richness of peninsulas also generally declines towards the tip of the peninsula
  19. Biogeographic Relicts
    taxa that once had larger distributions, but have become narrow endemics
  20. Latitudinal Gradient
    line tracking levels of latitude

    • What changes
    • Increase in biodiversity
    • Larger ranges
    • More generalist than specialists

    • Why
    • Less seasonality
    • More productivity
  21. Species Richness
    • the number of different species in a given area
    • in many large scale biogeographical studies, biodiversity is synonymous with species richness
  22. Species Eveness
    the degree to which the number of individual organisms are evenly divided between the different species in the community
  23. Insular Taxa
    species that have evolved on islands
  24. Continental Taxa
    species taht have evolved on continents
  25. SLOSS debate
    Single Large or Sever Small

    the scientific and political debate over wheter a single large reserve is better than several small reserves for the conservation of biodiversity
  26. MVPs
    Minimum Viable Population Size

    the population size required to keep a species from extinction with the forseeable future

    • Minimum number for shorterm survival:
    • Differs for each species
    • Offspring gustation period
    • Gender Mix:
    • Some are 1:1
    • Some are 5:1 (bulls/cows)
    • Minimum number for genetic stability (longterm):
    • If mutation rate is rapid, you need less
    • If mutation rate is slow you need more

    • 50/500 Rule (MVP)
    • if you don’t have any information, 50 actual
    • producers is the minimum for shorterm and 500 for longterm
    • problem is that stupid people started applying
    • this wholesale w/o even trying to find info
  27. Umbrella Species
    species, which because of their resource requirements and role in the ecosystem, provide evidence of biodiversity, habitat diversity, and healthey ecological functioning
  28. Biodiversity Hotspots
    areas that contain high numbers of endemic species taht are threatened by extinction due to human activities
  29. Gap Analysis
    • the use of GIS to overlay species maps to find areas of high biodiveristy or map endangered species and to compare the distributions of biodiversity or endangered endangered species to factors such as soil conditions or vegatation cover
    • areas of high biodiversity or the ranges of endangered species are then overlayed on maps of current or planned conservation areas to see if those areas are in the right location to preserve biodiversity or endangered species
  30. Charismaric Flora/Fauna
    • showy, large or otherwise interesting plants/animals that are often the object of intense conservation measures
    • those that make us feel all warm and fuzzy...so we send our money to protect

    PANDAS
  31. How did the evolution and distribution of domestication of plants and animals by humans impact earth?
    Include the general timeline and geography of these events
    • Changes in the landscape caused by agricultural land clearance can lead to strong selevtive pressure for traits that allow wild species to live in open fields or utilize crop and pasture plants for food
    • The reomoval of predators can cause the remaining species to evolve adaptations that decrease defenses against predation but increase foraging efficiency or reproductive rates
    • Hunting pressure can cause compensatory evolutionary development in prey species
    • The introduction of pesticides and pollutatnts into the environment has exerted selective pressure and led to evolutionary change in some organims

    Domestication

    • Humans selectively breed plants or animals to propegate and enhance desired traites
    • In many cases, the resulting domesticated species are markedly different in morphology and behavior from their wild progenitors.
    • Teosinte;Corn had large and more nutritious kernels and more kernels per year

    Timeline

    • Dog - 12,000 BC
    • Sheep - 9,000 BC
    • Goat - 7,500 BC ALL MIDDLE EAST
    • Cattle - 6,500 BC
    • Pig - 5,000 BC

    • Horse - 3,000 BC
    • Camel - 1,500 BC CENTRAL ASIA

    Buffalo - 2,500 INDIA
  32. What is a species range?
    What are some of the more common geographic patterns in range size and shape?
    Why do they occur?
    What are the difficulties in mapping it (dot vs outline vs choropleth)?
    a species range is a geographic area permanently occupied by a plant or animal taxon

    Size

    • the majority of range sizes for NA birds species are less than 5 million sq km and only a few have greater than 10 (Canada in size)
    • the majority of range sizes for NA mamals are less than 2 million sq km (1 km is 2/3 Alaska in size)
    • majority of species have medium to small, and only a few have very large ranges

    Shape

    • a lognormal curve having the shape of a backwards 'J' describes the relationship between species numbers and geographic ranges sizes for most groups of species
    • this distribution, consisting of many species with small ranges and a few species with large ranges is called hollow curve distribution
    • the hollow curve indicates specialist in terms of niches
    • only a few are generalists; they can use a wide variety of habitat resources, which allows them to be common on a local and wide scale.

    Mapping Difficulties

    • present the illusion that the plant or animals is distributed evenly and continuously throughout the shaded areathis
    • does not occur in nature
    • with-in the map boundary of the species there will be areas of high and low population density
  33. Define and describe the various ways a disjunct distribution can occur
    Ampiregional - Having a biogeographic distribution that is divided by a barrier into distinct regions;

    Amphitropical - Having a geographic distibution that occurs on either side of the tropics but not in the tropic zone itself

    Amphioceanic - Having a geographic distibution that occurs on opposite sides of oceans

    Bipolar - Having a geographic distibution that is found in cold polar regions, but not in the warmed mid and low latitudes

    Most are excluded by temperature or competition
  34. Compare and contrast pantropical with amphitropical distributions
    How might they occur?
    • Pan - having a geographic distribution accross the tropical regions; palms example;
    • Amphi - Having a geographic distibution that occurs on either side of the tropics but not in the tropic zone itself; creosote example
  35. Define and give examples of some richness gradients (elevation, latitude, peninsula, etc)
    • Less than 20 mammal species live in the sampling areas in the far north of Canada
    • Over 150 mammal species are found in Central America
    • Fewer than 40 species of birds make their home in the high artic of Canada
    • Well over 600 species of birds live in the rainforest of Central and South America
    • Insects show strong increases in species richness in the tropical regions
    • 3 species of ants are native to arctic Alaska
    • 200 species of ants are native to Brazil
    • Michigan has about 130 spices of butterflies
    • Panama has 1550 species of butterflies
    • Many groups of marine organisms show a similar pattern of increasing species diversity at lower latitudes
    • species richness of peninsulas also generally declines towards the tip of the peninsula
  36. Describe and discuss the various mechanisms that attempt to explain diversity patterns
    ???????????????????
  37. How does diversity on an island compare to that of the mainland?
    What are the primary factors that create these patterns?
    There will be much more biodiversity on the mainland than on the island


    • strongly corelated with island size
    • large islands support more species of plants and animals than do smaller islands
    • increasing species richness is found on islands located in lakes; vertabrate species on islands in lake michigan are larger on big islands as compared to small islands
  38. What is the species/area relationship?
    How does it vary on oceanic vs mainland islands?
    ???????????????????
  39. Compare and contrast the intermediate disturbance and the stability time hypotheses
    INTERMEDIATE

    • according to this hypothesis, if an ecosystem remains stable and free of distuprtion by disturbace, the stable homogeneous environmental conditions will favor some species but will lead to the extinction of species for which the stable haitat is not favorable or which are prone to competitive exclusion by species taht are favored by the undistribued environment
    • disturbances cause physical and biological changes and spatial heterogeneity in the system that can favor species that would not survive in a stable undisturbed system
    • on the other hand, if disturbance occurs too frequently and is too severe, it will lead to the extinction of disturbance sensitive species that have long generatio tiems or occur in low number and are prone to change extinction

    STABILITY TIME HYPOTHESES

    the hypothesis that long periods of environmental stability leads to high speceis richness

    NOTES

    • intermediate
    • on a larger scale, but doesn’t require secondary succession
    • disturbance is good up to a point
    • allows for successional stages of rebirth
    • is catastrophic, it destroys everything…so, ideal way to increase and maintain is intermediate
    • stability over time
    • EX) higher diversity come from no disturbance…stable over time
    • flowers boom year round
    • photosynthesis same
    • same seasons year round
  40. What is the "Theory of Island Biogeography"?
    What does it purport to explain and how?
    What are its strengths and weaknesses?
    • Theory of Island Biogeography
    • provides a theoretical construct linking species area relationships on islands to dispersal and extinction processes.

    • based o nthe assumption that the species richness of most islands is in a state of equilibrium with processes of immigration an extinction
    • immigration through dispersal and colonization events bring new species to isands
    • extinctin removes species
    • new species arrive constantly by dispersal, but the addition of thse nspeices is counterbalanced by the constant process of extinction that removes some of the old and some of the new
    • assuming that no environmental change occurs, the species richness of the island will only vary slightly around a stable mean
    • however, sine new species are arriving and older ones are going extinct in a continual process, the species composition of the island is always changing (speceis turnover)

    GRAPH

    • rate of immigration declines as the number of species on the island increases
    • the rate of extinction increases with the number of species that are on the island

    • the equilibrium number of species that the island can support is the point on the graph where the rates of immigration and extinction intersect
    • The theory of island biogeo is powerful becuase it not only offers a simple explanatino for why species diversity varies according to island size and isolation, but it also provides a set of hypotheses on speceis richness and turnover than can be used to test the theory

    PROBLEMS

    • it is difficult to conflude that the flora and fauna of remote islands are in a true state of beuilibrium between size, isolation, and species richness of plants and animals
    • because of factors such as rescue effect and large target effect, we cannot accept the assumption thatimmigration rates are controlled solely by relative isolation or that extinction rates are controlled soley by island size
    • evolution might be thought of as a factor that combined with immigration produces the rate of species additions to the islands; on short time frames, species addition will reflect immigation, but on long time frames, evolution is more plausible
  41. What does Gap Analysis, MVPs, and Island Theory have to do with reserve design and the conservation of species
    GAP ANALYSIS

    • the use of GIS to overlay species maps to find areas of high biodiveristy or map endangered species and to compare the distributions of biodiversity or endangered endangered species to factors such as soil conditions or vegatation cover
    • areas of high biodiversity or the ranges of endangered species are then overlayed on maps of current or planned conservation areas to see if those areas are in the right location to preserve biodiversity or endangered species

    MVP

    • Minimum Viable Population Size
    • the population size required to keep a species from extinction with the forseeable future
    • Minimum number for shorterm survival:
    • Differs for each species
    • Offspring gustation period
    • Gender Mix:
    • Some are 1:1
    • Some are 5:1 (bulls/cows)
    • Minimum number for genetic stability (longterm):
    • If mutation rate is rapid, you need less
    • If mutation rate is slow you need more

    • 50/500 Rule (MVP)
    • if you don’t have any information, 50 actualproducers is the minimum for shorterm and 500 for longterm
    • problem is that stupid people started applyingthis wholesale w/o even trying to find info
  42. 13.3

    RANGE SIZES AND SHAPES
    hollow curve distribution

    many species with small ranges and a few speceis with large ranges

    • majority of species have ranges less than 5 million range
    • a few have greater than 10 mill rnage

    • most speceis have medium to small ranges; only a few have large
    • a lognormal curve having the shape of a backward J describes the relationship between species numbers and geographic range sizes for most groups of plants and animals

    due to

    • each species having a seperate ecological niche
    • most are excluded by physical or biological factors
    • few are generalists; many are specialists
    • most survive on being adapted to a narrow set of environmental conditions
  43. 13.6

    RANGE SIZES AND SHAPES
    • in general, the shapes of plant and animal ranges are more elliptical or rectangular than they are circular or square
    • the tendency for ranges to be elongated along one axis relative to the other appears to be controlled by climate and landforms

    • hummingbird is restricted to a narrow strip of land west of the main coastal mountains that runs sourth to north from Cali to Washington
    • eagle is excluded in the desert and tundra, but occupies a broad band of more temperate climatic conditions between these two extremes
  44. 14.3

    DIVERSITY PATTERNS
    • species diversity for all three groups is lowest in the far north and generally increases southward
    • <20 mammals live in far north, while 150 live in central america
    • <40 birds live in far north, but 600 live in the rainforest of central and south america

    • average number of species found per unit of land also increases
    • a hectare of forest is alask supports 5 or fewer speices of trees, while those in east north america supports 10 to 20
  45. 14.4

    DIVERSITY PATTERNS
    • the species diversity of high altitude alpine sites in the tropics is low compared to that of adjacent lowland forests
    • tundra ecosystems found at high elevations are poorer in bird, mamal, and plant species than lower elevational forests
  46. 14.9

    ETIB
    big island, big area, big mountain = more number of species
  47. 14.10

    ETIB
    isolation = less diversity/richness

    close proximity of mountain; mountains that are closer to other mountains will have more diversity

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