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  1. Anatomy:
    The study of the biological form of an organism.
  2. Physiology:
    The study of the biological functions an organism performs.
  3. Evolutionary Convergence:
    • Reflects different adaptations to a similar environmental challenge.
    • Physical laws impose constraints on animal size and shape.
  4. Exchange with the Environment:
    • Occurs as substances diffuse and transport across the plasma membranes.
    • Protist in water has a sufficient surface area to service its entire volume.
    • Sac bodies have walls two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials.
    • Complex organisms have folded internal surfaces for exchanging materials.
    • Vertebrates have interstitial fluid allowing the movement of material in and out.
    • Complex body plans help maintain internal environment.
  5. Hierarchical Organization of the Body:
    • Animals are composed of cells organized into tissues with different functions.
    • Tissues make organs, which make organ systems.
  6. Four Main Categories of Tissue Classification:
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  7. Epithelial Tissue:
    • Covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body.
    • It contains cells that are closely joined.
    • Classified by number and shape.
  8. Epithelial Tissue by Number:
    • 1 = Simple
    • 1 + x = Stratified
  9. Epithelial Tissue by Shape:
    • Flat = Squamous
    • Cube = Cuboidal
    • Column = Columnar
  10. Connective Tissue:
    • Binds and supports other tissues.
    • Contains sparsely packed cells scattered in an extracellular matrix.
    • Matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation.
  11. Types of Connective Tissues:
    • Loose Connective Tissue - Elastic Fiber + Collagenous Fiber
    • Fibrous Connective Tissue - Nuclei
    • Bone - Osteon + Central Canal
    • Cartilage - Chondrocytes + Chondroitin Sulfate
    • Adipose Tissue - Fat Droplets
    • Blood - White/Red Blood Cells + Plasma
  12. Muscle Tissue:
    Long cells called muscle fibers, which contract in response to nerve signals.
  13. Muscle Tissue Types:
    • Skeletal Muscle or Striated Muscle
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Smooth Muscle
  14. Skeletal Muscle:
    • Sarcomere (striations) perpendicular to muscle fibre direction.
    • Multiple nuclei in plasma membrane.
    • Responsible for voluntery movement.
  15. Smooth Muscle:
    • Collection of diamond shaped cells, each with a single nucleus.
    • Responsible for involuntery body activities.
  16. Cardiac Muscle:
    • Nucleaus between Intercalated Discs (junctions)
    • Light Striations
    • Responsible for contraction of the heart.
  17. Nervous Tissue:
    • Senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal.
    • Has neurons and glial cells.
  18. Neurons and Glial Cells:
    • Neurons/nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses.
    • Glial cells/or glia that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons.
  19. Coordination and Control:
    Depend on the endocrine system and the nervous system.
  20. Endocrine System:
    • Transmits chemical signals (hormones) to receptive cells via blood.
    • Hormones may affect one or more regions.
    • Relatively slow acting, but have long-lasting effects.
  21. Nervous System:
    • Transmits information between specific locations.
    • Information depends on pathway, not the signal.
    • Transmission is very fast.
    • Received by neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells.
  22. Homeostasis and Feedback Systems:
    • To maintain an internal balance regardless of external environment.
    • By regulating or conforming to the external environment.
  23. Regulator:
    Uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in environmental fluctuation.
  24. Conformer:
    Allows internal condition to moderate with certain external changes.
  25. Define Homeostasis.
    The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment
  26. Feedback:
    • Fluctuations above or below a point is a stimulus
    • Detected by a sensor and triggers a response.
    • Response returns the variable to the set point.
  27. Negative Feedback:
    • Helps to return a variable to a normal range or a set point.
    • Most homeostatic control systems buildup end product that shuts the system off.
  28. Positive Feedback:
    • Do not usually contribute to homeostasis.
    • Reinforces change in a controlled condition.
  29. Set Points and Normal Ranges:
    Change with age or show cyclic variation.
  30. Acclimatization:
    Adjust to changes in external environment.
  31. Thermoregulation:
    Process to maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range.
  32. Define Endothermic.
    • Capable of keeping the body warm through metabolism.
    • Active at a greater range of external temperature.
    • Energetically expensive
  33. Define Ectothermic.
    • Absorbing external heat as the main source of body heat.
    • Tolerate greater variation in internal temperature.
  34. Poikilotherm:
    Organism with internal body temperature varying with environment.
  35. Homeotherm:
    Organism with relatively constant body temperature.
  36. Therm-Comparison:
    • Endotherm - Generates heat to maintain its body temp. (Method)
    • Ectotherm - Uses external sources of heat to obtain heat. (Method)
    • Poikilotherm - Body temp. varies with the external temp. (Reason)
    • Homeotherm - Body temp. constant and independent of the external temp. (Reason)
  37. Physical Processes which Organisms Exchange Heat:
    • Radiation = Sun (Electromagnetic radiation)
    • Evaporation = Water molecules carrying heat away
    • Convection = Movement of medium(cool breeze)
    • Conduction = transfer of energy (warm rock to feet)
  38. Integumentary System:
    • Major heat regulator in mammals.
    • Skin, Hair and Nails.
  39. General Adaptations for Animal Thermoregulation:
    • Insulation
    • Circulatory Adaptations
    • Cooling By Evaporative Heat Loss
    • Behavioral Responses
    • Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production
  40. Insulation:
    Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber reduce heat flow with the environment.
  41. Circulatory Adaptations:
    • Regulation of blood flow at body surface significantly affects thermoregulation.
    • Many animals can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin.
  42. Vasodilation:
    • Blood flow in the skin increases.
    • Facilitates heat loss.
  43. Vasoconstriction:
    • Blood flow in the skin decreases.
    • Lowering heat loss.
  44. Countercurret Heat Exchange:
    • Arrangement of blood vessels in many marine mammals and birds.
    • Transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions.
  45. Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss:
    • Lose heat through evaporation of water in sweat.
    • Panting increases the cooling effect.
    • Sweating or bathing moistens the skin, helping to cool an animal down.
  46. Behavioral Responses:
    Postures that minimize or maximize absorption of solar heat.
  47. Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production:
    • Regulating body temperature by adjusting rate of metabolic heat production.
    • Heat production is increased by muscle activity such as moving or shivering.
    • Some ectotherms can also shiver to increase body temperature.
  48. Acclimatization in Thermoregulation:
    • Varied insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temp. changes.
    • Some ectotherms produce "antifreeze" at subzero temps.
    • Controlled by hypothalamus. (brain)
    • Triggers heat loss or heat generating mechanisms.
  49. Fever:
    • Change to the set point for a biological thermostat.
    • Can eliminate viruses/bacteria(stops reproduction)
    • Speeds up immune responses
    • Porduction of proteins
  50. Ecotohermic Fever:
    Uses the sun instead of a fever.
  51. Bioenergetics:
    • Overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal.
    • Determines amount of food needed relative to size, activity, and environment.
    • After survival, remaining food molecules used in biosynthesis.
  52. Biosynthesis Effects:
    • Body growth and repair
    • Synthesis of storage material (fat)
    • Production of gametes.
  53. Metabolic Rate:
    • Energy an animal uses in a unit of time.
    • Assumes a nongrowing, fasting, nonstressed animal.
    • Affected by size and activity.
    • Lower in ectotherms.
  54. Basal metabolic rate (BMR):
    Metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a comfortable temperature.
  55. Standard metabolic rate (SMR):
    Metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature.
  56. Size:
    Metabolic rate per gram is inversely related to body size.
  57. High Metabolic Rate of Small Animals Lead to Relatively...:
    • Higher O2 Delivery Rates
    • Breathing Rate
    • Heart Rate
    • Greater Blood Volume
  58. Activity:
    • Max. metabolic rate sustainable is inversely related to the duration of activity.
    • Energy and materials usage is differernt depending on species and environment.
  59. Use of Energy from Activity is Partitioned to:
    • BMR (or SMR)
    • Activity
    • Thermoregulation
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
  60. Torpor and Energy Conservation:
    • Torpor is a physiological state in which activity and metabolism is low.
    • Enables energy saving avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions.
  61. Hibernation:
    Long-term torpor adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity.
  62. Estivation:
    Summer torpor enables survival over long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies.
  63. Daily Torpor:
    Exhibited by many small animals and adapted to feeding patterns (less food storage).
Card Set:
2011-12-10 09:38:55
animal form function

BIOL 1215-15 Animal Form and Function
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