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The study of the biological form of an organism.
The study of the biological functions an organism performs.
- Reflects different adaptations to a similar environmental challenge.
- Physical laws impose constraints on animal size and shape.
Exchange with the Environment:
- Occurs as substances diffuse and transport across the plasma membranes.
- Protist in water has a sufficient surface area to service its entire volume.
- Sac bodies have walls two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials.
- Complex organisms have folded internal surfaces for exchanging materials.
- Vertebrates have interstitial fluid allowing the movement of material in and out.
- Complex body plans help maintain internal environment.
Hierarchical Organization of the Body:
- Animals are composed of cells organized into tissues with different functions.
- Tissues make organs, which make organ systems.
Four Main Categories of Tissue Classification:
- Covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body.
- It contains cells that are closely joined.
- Classified by number and shape.
Epithelial Tissue by Number:
- 1 = Simple
- 1 + x = Stratified
Epithelial Tissue by Shape:
- Flat = Squamous
- Cube = Cuboidal
- Column = Columnar
- Binds and supports other tissues.
- Contains sparsely packed cells scattered in an extracellular matrix.
- Matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation.
Types of Connective Tissues:
- Loose Connective Tissue - Elastic Fiber + Collagenous Fiber
- Fibrous Connective Tissue - Nuclei
- Bone - Osteon + Central Canal
- Cartilage - Chondrocytes + Chondroitin Sulfate
- Adipose Tissue - Fat Droplets
- Blood - White/Red Blood Cells + Plasma
Long cells called muscle fibers, which contract in response to nerve signals.
Muscle Tissue Types:
- Skeletal Muscle or Striated Muscle
- Cardiac Muscle
- Smooth Muscle
- Sarcomere (striations) perpendicular to muscle fibre direction.
- Multiple nuclei in plasma membrane.
- Responsible for voluntery movement.
- Collection of diamond shaped cells, each with a single nucleus.
- Responsible for involuntery body activities.
- Nucleaus between Intercalated Discs (junctions)
- Light Striations
- Responsible for contraction of the heart.
- Senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal.
- Has neurons and glial cells.
Neurons and Glial Cells:
- Neurons/nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses.
- Glial cells/or glia that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons.
Coordination and Control:
Depend on the endocrine system and the nervous system.
- Transmits chemical signals (hormones) to receptive cells via blood.
- Hormones may affect one or more regions.
- Relatively slow acting, but have long-lasting effects.
- Transmits information between specific locations.
- Information depends on pathway, not the signal.
- Transmission is very fast.
- Received by neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells.
Homeostasis and Feedback Systems:
- To maintain an internal balance regardless of external environment.
- By regulating or conforming to the external environment.
Uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in environmental fluctuation.
Allows internal condition to moderate with certain external changes.
The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment
- Fluctuations above or below a point is a stimulus
- Detected by a sensor and triggers a response.
- Response returns the variable to the set point.
- Helps to return a variable to a normal range or a set point.
- Most homeostatic control systems buildup end product that shuts the system off.
- Do not usually contribute to homeostasis.
- Reinforces change in a controlled condition.
Set Points and Normal Ranges:
Change with age or show cyclic variation.
Adjust to changes in external environment.
Process to maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range.
- Capable of keeping the body warm through metabolism.
- Active at a greater range of external temperature.
- Energetically expensive
- Absorbing external heat as the main source of body heat.
- Tolerate greater variation in internal temperature.
Organism with internal body temperature varying with environment.
Organism with relatively constant body temperature.
- Endotherm - Generates heat to maintain its body temp. (Method)
- Ectotherm - Uses external sources of heat to obtain heat. (Method)
- Poikilotherm - Body temp. varies with the external temp. (Reason)
- Homeotherm - Body temp. constant and independent of the external temp. (Reason)
Physical Processes which Organisms Exchange Heat:
- Radiation = Sun (Electromagnetic radiation)
- Evaporation = Water molecules carrying heat away
- Convection = Movement of medium(cool breeze)
- Conduction = transfer of energy (warm rock to feet)
- Major heat regulator in mammals.
- Skin, Hair and Nails.
General Adaptations for Animal Thermoregulation:
- Circulatory Adaptations
- Cooling By Evaporative Heat Loss
- Behavioral Responses
- Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production
Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber reduce heat flow with the environment.
- Regulation of blood flow at body surface significantly affects thermoregulation.
- Many animals can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin.
- Blood flow in the skin increases.
- Facilitates heat loss.
- Blood flow in the skin decreases.
- Lowering heat loss.
Countercurret Heat Exchange:
- Arrangement of blood vessels in many marine mammals and birds.
- Transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions.
Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss:
- Lose heat through evaporation of water in sweat.
- Panting increases the cooling effect.
- Sweating or bathing moistens the skin, helping to cool an animal down.
Postures that minimize or maximize absorption of solar heat.
Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production:
- Regulating body temperature by adjusting rate of metabolic heat production.
- Heat production is increased by muscle activity such as moving or shivering.
- Some ectotherms can also shiver to increase body temperature.
Acclimatization in Thermoregulation:
- Varied insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temp. changes.
- Some ectotherms produce "antifreeze" at subzero temps.
- Controlled by hypothalamus. (brain)
- Triggers heat loss or heat generating mechanisms.
- Change to the set point for a biological thermostat.
- Can eliminate viruses/bacteria(stops reproduction)
- Speeds up immune responses
- Porduction of proteins
Uses the sun instead of a fever.
- Overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal.
- Determines amount of food needed relative to size, activity, and environment.
- After survival, remaining food molecules used in biosynthesis.
- Body growth and repair
- Synthesis of storage material (fat)
- Production of gametes.
- Energy an animal uses in a unit of time.
- Assumes a nongrowing, fasting, nonstressed animal.
- Affected by size and activity.
- Lower in ectotherms.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR):
Metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a comfortable temperature.
Standard metabolic rate (SMR):
Metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature.
Metabolic rate per gram is inversely related to body size.
High Metabolic Rate of Small Animals Lead to Relatively...:
- Higher O2 Delivery Rates
- Breathing Rate
- Heart Rate
- Greater Blood Volume
- Max. metabolic rate sustainable is inversely related to the duration of activity.
- Energy and materials usage is differernt depending on species and environment.
Use of Energy from Activity is Partitioned to:
- BMR (or SMR)
Torpor and Energy Conservation:
- Torpor is a physiological state in which activity and metabolism is low.
- Enables energy saving avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions.
Long-term torpor adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity.
Summer torpor enables survival over long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies.
Exhibited by many small animals and adapted to feeding patterns (less food storage).