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- The menstrual cycle is composed of 4 phases.
- The normal cycle is 21 to 45 days in length.
- The 4 phases are:
- Menstrual: Days 1-5 of cycle.
- Proliferative (follicular): Day 5-ovulation, FSH is secreted by the ant. pituitary. Preovulatory surge of LH affects one follicle and ovulation occurs.
- Secretory (luteal): Ovulation to approx. 3 days before menstruation begins. Progesterone levels increase.
- Ishemic: If fertilization did not occur, the levels of estrogen and progesterone drop off causing menstruation
- From ovulation to the beginning of the next menstrual cycle is 14 days. Which means, ovulation occurs 14 days before the next menstrual period.
- Sperm live approx. 3 days, but some sperm may remain viable for as long as 5 days.
- Eggs live about 24 hours.
Implantation: Fertilization takes place in the ampulla (outer 1/3 portion of the fallopian tube) The zygote takes about 3-4 days to enter the uterus. It takes about 7-10 days to complete the process of nidation
- Fetal Development
- Zygote: 12-14 days after fertilization
- Embryo: 15-8 weeks after fertilization
- Fetus: 9 weeks- term (38 weeks)
- Pregnancy Length: Counted from the first day of the last mentstrual period. (LMP)
- 280 Days
- 40 weeks
- 10 lunar months
- 9 calendar months
- Divided into three 13 week trimesters:
- 1: LMP to 13.6 weeks
- 2: 14-26.6 weeks
- 3: 27-40 weeks