Ch. 6 Key Terms

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jamieljones
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Ch. 6 Key Terms
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2011-12-12 17:52:46
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Chapter Six Addressing Network IPv4 Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide
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Chapter Six Addressing the Network: IPv4 Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide
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  1. administratively scoped addresses
    IPv4 multicast address that is restricted to a local group or organization

    see also limited-scope address
  2. AND
    One of 3 basic binary logic operations.

    ANDing yields the following results:

    • 1 AND 1 = 1
    • 1 AND 0 = 0
    • 0 AND 1 = 0
    • 0 AND 0 = 0
  3. address pool
    Range of IP addresses that can be assigned by the DHCP server.
  4. broadcast address
    Address used to represent transmission from one device to all devices.

    • Ethernet the address = FFFF.FFFF.FFFF
    • is used to send the frame to all devices on the Ethernet LAN.

    IPv4 each subnet has a single broadcast address (aka subnet or directed broadcast address)
  5. classful addressing
    • Unicast IP address that is considered to have three parts:
    • 1. network part
    • 2. subnet part
    • 3. host part

    "classful rules are first applied to the address and then the rest of the address is separated for subnetting"

    Class A, B, C, D & E
  6. classless addressing
    IPv4 address scheme using subnet masks that do not follow classful addressing limitations.

    Flexibility when dividing ranges of IP address into separate networks.

    Considered best for current networks.
  7. digital logic
    Consists of the AND, OR and IF operations

    aka Boolean algebra
  8. dotted decimal
    Convention for writing IP addresses with four decimal numbers that range from 0 - 255 (inclusive)

    Each octet (decimal number), 8-bits of the 32-bit address.

    Four octets are separated by a decimal.
  9. directed broadcast
    [Rather than being sent to all hosts in a particular network]

    A single copy of the packet is routed to the specific network it's destined for - where it is then broadcast to all hosts on that network.
  10. globally scoped address
    Unique addresses that are public domain addresses.
  11. high-order bits
    Portion of the binary number that carries the most weight.

    (the one written furthest to the left)

    Are the 1s in a network mask.
  12. Internet backbone
    High-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a net-work.

    Often used to describe the main network connections comprising the Internet.
  13. ICMP
    Internet Control Message Protocol

    Part of the TCP/IP Internet Layer.

    Defines protocol messages used to inform network admin how well the internetwork is operating.

    EX: ping command sends ICMP messages to verify that a host can send packets to another host.
  14. link-local addresses
    • IPv4 address in the range of:
    • 169.254.1.0 - 169.254.254.255

    Communication is limited to local network w/ TTL = 1
  15. loopback
    Reserved IPv4 address: 127.0.0.1

    Used to test TCP/IP applications (testing the stack)

    Does not require a working NIC as packet does not leave the computer.
  16. limited-scope addresses
    Multicast address that is restricted to a local group or organization.

    see also administratively scoped address
  17. limited broadcast
    Broadcast that is sent to a specific network or series of networks.
  18. low-order bits
    = host portion of the IP subnet mask.

    Represent the 0s in the binary number.
  19. most significant bit
    Bit position in a binary number having the greatest value.

    Typically the leftmost bit.
  20. multicast clients
    Member of a multicast group.

    Each client in group has same IP address.

    • Multicast addresses range:
    • 224.*.*.* - 239.*.*.*
  21. multicast group
    Group that receives multicast transmissions.

    All members have same IP address and receive all transmissions to that multicast address.
  22. NAT
    Network Address Translation

    Translation of RFC 1918 addresses to public domain addresses.

    (RFC 1918 addresses are not routable on the Internet)
  23. NTP
    Network Time Protocol

    For synchronizing the clocks of computers over packet-switched data networks.

    Uses UDP port 123 as it's transport layer.
  24. positional notation
    Numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier (common ratio that is the base of that numeral system)

    aka place-value notation
  25. prefix length
    (IP Subnetting)

    Refers to the portion of a set of IP addresses whose value must be identical for the addresses to be in the same subnet.
  26. public addresses
    IP address that has been registered with IANA or another agency.

    Ensures a globally unique public IP address that can be used to send packets through the Internet.
  27. private addresses
    Defined in RFC 1918

    IP address that is not globally unique bc the address exists inside packets only when the packets are inside a single private IP internetwork.

    Popular with companies who can then use NAT for a globally unique IP address.
  28. RTT
    Round-Trip Time

    Time between sending a PDU and receiving a response.

    The time for [some] PDUs to be sent and received & a response PDU sent and received.
  29. RIR
    Regional Internet Registries

    Organizations that are responsible for the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within a particular region of the world.

    • ARIN North America
    • RIPE Europe & Middle East
    • APNIC Asia & the Pacific
    • LACNIC South America
    • AfriNIC Africa
  30. reserved link-local addresses
    • IPv4 multicast addresses between:
    • 224.0.0.0 - 224.0.0.255

    Used for multicast groups on a local network.

    Packet TTL always = 1
  31. radix
    Number of various unique digits - including 0

    radix aka base

    EX: binary system is base 2 (radix=2)
  32. scope
    Extent of a certain item from beginning to end

    Ex: address scope
  33. slash format
    Uses forward slash ( / ) to express the network prefix after the IP address.

    EX: 192.168.254.0/24

    Represents 24-bit network prefix
  34. test-net addresses
    • IPv4 address block:
    • 192.0.2.0 - 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0/24)

    Set aside for teaching and learning purposes.

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