Ch. 6 Key Terms
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administratively scoped addresses
IPv4 multicast address that is restricted to a local group or organization
see also limited-scope address
One of 3 basic binary logic operations.
ANDing yields the following results:
- 1 AND 1 = 1
- 1 AND 0 = 0
- 0 AND 1 = 0
- 0 AND 0 = 0
Range of IP addresses that can be assigned by the DHCP server.
Address used to represent transmission from one device to all devices.
- Ethernet the address = FFFF.FFFF.FFFF
- is used to send the frame to all devices on the Ethernet LAN.
IPv4 each subnet has a single broadcast address (aka subnet
or directed broadcast address)
- Unicast IP address that is considered to have three parts:
- 1. network part
- 2. subnet part
- 3. host part
"classful rules are first applied to the address and then the rest of the address is separated for subnetting"
Class A, B, C, D & E
IPv4 address scheme using subnet masks that do not follow classful addressing limitations.
Flexibility when dividing ranges of IP address into separate networks.
Considered best for current networks.
Consists of the AND, OR and IF operations
aka Boolean algebra
Convention for writing IP addresses with four decimal numbers that range from 0 - 255 (inclusive)
Each octet (decimal number), 8-bits of the 32-bit address.
Four octets are separated by a decimal.
[Rather than being sent to all hosts in a particular network]
A single copy of the packet is routed to the specific network it's destined for - where it is then broadcast to all hosts on that network.
globally scoped address
Unique addresses that are public domain addresses.
Portion of the binary number that carries the most weight.
(the one written furthest to the left)
Are the 1s in a network mask.
High-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a net-work.
Often used to describe the main network connections comprising the Internet.
Internet Control Message Protocol
Part of the TCP/IP Internet Layer.
Defines protocol messages used to inform network admin how well the internetwork is operating.
EX: ping command sends ICMP messages to verify that a host can send packets to another host.
- IPv4 address in the range of:
- 169.254.1.0 - 169.254.254.255
Communication is limited to local network w/ TTL = 1
Reserved IPv4 address: 127.0.0.1
Used to test TCP/IP applications (testing the stack)
Does not require a working NIC as packet does not leave the computer.
Multicast address that is restricted to a local group or organization.
see also administratively scoped address
Broadcast that is sent to a specific network or series of networks.
= host portion of the IP subnet mask.
Represent the 0s in the binary number.
most significant bit
Bit position in a binary number having the greatest value.
Typically the leftmost bit.
Member of a multicast group.
Each client in group has same IP address.
- Multicast addresses range:
- 224.*.*.* - 239.*.*.*
Group that receives multicast transmissions.
All members have same IP address and receive all transmissions to that multicast address.
Network Address Translation
Translation of RFC 1918 addresses to public domain addresses.
(RFC 1918 addresses are not routable on the Internet)
Network Time Protocol
For synchronizing the clocks of computers over packet-switched data networks.
Uses UDP port 123 as it's transport layer.
Numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier (common ratio that is the base of that numeral system)
aka place-value notation
Refers to the portion of a set of IP addresses whose value must be identical for the addresses to be in the same subnet.
IP address that has been registered with IANA or another agency.
Ensures a globally unique public IP address that can be used to send packets through the Internet.
Defined in RFC 1918
IP address that is not globally unique bc the address exists inside packets only when the packets are inside a single private IP internetwork.
Popular with companies who can then use NAT for a globally unique IP address.
Time between sending a PDU and receiving a response.
The time for [some] PDUs to be sent and received & a response PDU sent and received.
Regional Internet Registries
Organizations that are responsible for the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within a particular region of the world.
- ARIN North America
- RIPE Europe & Middle East
- APNIC Asia & the Pacific
- LACNIC South America
- AfriNIC Africa
reserved link-local addresses
- IPv4 multicast addresses between:
- 220.127.116.11 - 18.104.22.168
Used for multicast groups on a local network.
Packet TTL always = 1
Number of various unique digits - including 0
radix aka base
EX: binary system is base 2 (radix=2)
Extent of a certain item from beginning to end
Ex: address scope
Uses forward slash ( / ) to express the network prefix after the IP address.
Represents 24-bit network prefix
- IPv4 address block:
- 192.0.2.0 - 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0/24)
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