Cardiovascular systems

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Cardiovascular systems
2010-03-31 17:16:38
biology exam 3 cardiovascular system

terms and concepts from the second powerpoint for the third exam
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  1. circulatory (cardiovascular) system
    composed of a pump (heart), fluid (blood) and conduits (blood vessels)
  2. functions of the CV system
    • deliver O2 and nutrients to the tissues
    • remove CO2, metabolites and metabolic waste from the tissues
    • vehicle for delivery of hormones
    • provide pressure for filtration of blood by kidney
    • circulate specialized immune cells
    • temperature control
    • hydraulic force for limb extension (clams)
    • wing expansion (insects)
    • penile erection (mammals)
    • etc.
  3. Animals with no circulatory systme
    • simple, usaully small, aquatic
    • nutrients, gases and wastes can diffuse between the cells and the environment and a circulatory system is not needed
    • some aquatic animals have a flat body shape or a highly branched gastrovascular cavity to provide max SA for exchange
  4. gastrovascular cavity
    combination gut and circulatory system
  5. "circulatory system" in sponges
    • gas diffusion
    • semi-random nutrient distribution
    • no true body cavity
  6. "circulatroy system" in Cnidaria
    • diffusive gas exchange through epidermal gastrodermal cells
    • large anenomes have internal folds of gastrodermic mesentaries
  7. Open circulatory systems
    • blood or circulating fluid is not kept separate form the tissue fluid
    • the most simple systems squeeze tissue fluid (hemolymph) through and around intercellular spaces
    • usually a pump or heart
    • anthropods, some mollusks and some other invertebrates use this system
  8. closed circulatory systems
    • keeps the blood and tissue fluid separate
    • one or more muscular hearts and a branching network of vessels (the vascular system) move the blood
  9. Earthworms
    (CV system)
    • closed circulatory system
    • the large dorsal and ventral vessels are connected by 5 vessels that serve as hearts
    • the dorsal vessel is also pulsatile
    • direction of blood flow is controlled by one-way valves
  10. Advantages of closed CV systems
    • blood pressure and flow are higher. Therefore, nutrient delivery and waste removal are more rapid
    • closed systems can direct the blood to specific tissues and vary flow as needed
    • cellular elements and large molecules that aid in transport can be kept within the vessels
  11. Vertebrate circulatory systems
    • closed systems and hearts with two or more chambers, valves prevent backflow then the heart contracts
    • have arteries, veins, arterioles, capillaries, and venules
    • a theme in vertebrate evolution is a progressive separation of the blood that goes to the respiratory organs from the blood that goes to the rest of the body
    • this culminates in two circuits: a pulmonary circuit and a systemic circuit
  12. arteries
    vessels that carry blood away from the heart
  13. veins
    vessels that carry blood to the heart
  14. arterioles
    arteries give rise to smaller vessels (arterioles), which feed blood into the capillaries
  15. capillaries
    thin walled vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and the tissue fluid
  16. venules
    small vessels which connect the capillary beds with the larger veins
  17. Fish
    (CV system)
    • most fish have two chambered hearts: a thinly muscled atrium to recieve blood and a heavily muscled ventricle to pump blood
    • blood is pumped to the gills (capillary beds) for gas exchange, then through the aorta to the rest of the body
    • blood pressure is low in the aorta, and the rest of the systemic circulation bc the narrow gill spaces dissipate flow force. this does not seem to hamper fish
  18. African lungfish
    • have evolved a primitive lung from an out-pocketing of the gut this permits them to breathe air when the water becomes anoxic or dries up
    • the posterior pair of modified gill arches directs some of the blood coming from the heart to the lung, and a new vessel carries oxygenated blood from the lung back to the heart. The anterior pair of arches have non-functional gills (exchange CO2 but not O2) blood is directed appropriatly depending on weather the fish is air or water breathing
    • the heart has a partly divided atrium: the left side recieves deoxygenated blood from the lung, the right side recieves deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body
  19. Amphibians
    (CV system)
    • 3-chambered hearts with one ventricle and two atria
    • one atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body; the other receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
    • mixing of blood in the ventricle is minimized by a partial separation. Deoxygenated blood is directed to the pulmonary circuit; oxygenate blood is directed to the aorta
    • the partial separation of pulmonary and systemic separation permits delivery of blood in the aorta and tissues at a higher pressure than in non-air breathing fish
  20. Reptiles
    (cv system)
    • reptilian (except crocodilian) hearts have two atria and a ventricle that is partially divided, so mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood is minimized. Crocodilians have an actual four chambered heart
    • reptiles have a large range of metabolic needs, from very active states to resting states with very low metabolism
    • they do not have to breate continuously
    • the lung circuit can be bypassed when they are not breathing
    • turtles, snakes, and lizards have two aortas and a ventricle that is imcompletely divided by a septum. Although actually 3-chambered, the heart is functionally four-chambered
    • when the animal is not breathing, this setup allows constriction of blood vessels in the lung circuit and shunting of blood through both aortas to the systemic circuit
    • during a breath, resistance to flow through the pulomonary circulation is low, blood flow is high. When diving, there is an increase in resistance in pulmonary circulation, and a redution in cardiac output associated with bradycardia
  21. Crocodilians
    (CV system)
    • have a true four-chambered heart and two aortas, one from each ventricle, with a channel connecting them
    • when a crocodile is breathing, higher pressure in the left ventricle and aorta is communicated to the channel; this prevents right-ventricle blood from entering the aorta and right ventricle blood flows to the pulmonary circuit
    • when the animal is not breathing (diving), pressure builds up in the right ventricle until it exceeds that of the right aorta. Blood from both ventricles flows through the two aortas and the systemic circuit, and little blood flows into the pulmonary circuit
  22. The human heart
    • the left and right sides of the human heart, may be thought of as separate pumps.
    • the left pump delivers blood to the systemic circuit
    • the right pump delivers blood to the pumonary circuit
  23. artrioventricular valves
    between the atria and ventricles prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles contract
  24. pulmonary valve and aortic valve
    prevent backflow into the ventricles
  25. flow of blood through the human CV system
    • the right atrium recieves blood from the superior and inferior vena cavas
    • from the right atrium, blood goes to the right ventricle
    • the right ventricle sends blood through the pulmonary artery to the lung
    • pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood to the left atrium
    • from the left atrium, blod goes to the left ventricle
    • the left ventricle sends blood through the aorta to the body and the capillary beds
    • blood returns to the right atrium via veins
  26. left ventricle
    more muscular than right because the resistance of the systemic circuit is much greater than that of the pulmonary circuit
  27. cardiac cycle
    ventricle contraction and relaxation then atria contract
  28. systole
    ventricle contraction
  29. diastole
    ventricle relaxation
  30. What makes the sounds of the cardiac cycle (the "lub-dup")?
    the closure of heart valves
  31. What makes heart murmers?
    what does it sound like?
    • defective valves
    • whooshing sounds following lub
  32. mammals - fetal heart
    blood oxygenated in placenta, not lungs
  33. forman ovale
    opening from right atrium to the left atrium in fetal development
  34. ductus arteriosus
    connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta
  35. What do you use to measure blood pressure
    sphygmomanometer and stethoscope
  36. Normal blood pressure
  37. pacemaker cells
    initiate action potentials without revous stimulation
  38. gap junctions
    maintain electricial contact between cardiac cells
  39. sinoatrial node
    primary pace maker of mammalian heart located at the juncture of the superior vena cava and right atrium
  40. What is the role of the autonomic nervous system in controlling heart rate
    Acetylcholine and norepinephrine from teh parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve endings slow and increase the rate respectively
  41. How does a normal heart beat begin and end?
    • Starts with an action potential in the sinoatrial node.
    • Action potential spreads through the atrial cells, causing them to contract unison.
    • The ventricles do not contract in unison with the atria because there are no gap junctions between the cells of the atria and ventricle.
  42. Bundle of His
    bundle of fibers that carry the action potentials from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles after the atria has fired.
  43. Purkinje fibers
    evenly distribute the action potential from the bundle of His throughout the ventricular muscle. The delary insures that the atria contract before the ventricles
  44. Depolarization of the ventricular muscles
    • Starts with Na creating an action potential.
    • Sustained opening of Ca channels maintains depolarization
  45. Resistance to flow caries inversly with...
  46. What controls the smooth muscles
    neuronal and hormonal control
  47. Resistance vessels
    arteries and arterioles
  48. capillary beds
    • lie between arterioles and venules and exchange materials between blood and tissue through their thin walls.
    • Blood flows slowly through them, dissipates high pressure of the arteries because of large volume
  49. fenestrations
    windows in capillary walls of endothelial cells
  50. Starling's forces
    • the sum of the two opposing forces in capillary beds.
    • colloidal osmotic pressure - large proteins molecules in the capillary push water back into the blood
    • blood pressure - push water into surrounding tissue from blood
  51. Edema
    tissue swelling
  52. CO2 and HCO3-
    A driving force to pull water back into the capillaries.
  53. What happens to CO2 after it diffuses into the plasma?
    It is converted into HCO3-
  54. What does the increasing bicarbonate concentration do?
    increases the osmotic presuure at the venous end of the capillary bed possible a major factor in pulling water back into the capillaries
  55. Blood-Brain barrier
    capillaries of the brain do not have fenestrations, so very few substances besides lipid-soluble molecules can pass through the capillaries of the brain, a highly selective barrier
  56. capacitance vessels
    veins: because of their high capacity to store blood (they are distensible)
  57. Pressure in veins is very low, how does the body get blood back to the heart?
    • gravity
    • vessel squeezing by skeletal muscles
    • breething
    • limited smooth muscle contraction
  58. what is the purpose of one-way valves in veins?
    the prevent backflow
  59. How do varicose veins develop?
    When veins become stretched the valves no longer do their job
  60. How does walking or running affect veinus flow?
    the skeletal muscles in the legs act as auxiliary vascular pumps and return blood to the heart from the veins of the lower body
  61. How does breathing affect venus blood flow?
    creates negative pressure (suction), which pulls blood and lymph toward the chest area
  62. how do smooth muscles affect venus blood flow?
    in large veins nerar the heart smooth muscles also contract with exercise, increasing venous return and cardiac output
  63. Frank-Starling law
    if a greater volume of blood is returned to the heart, which streches the cardiac muscle cells the heart contracts more forcefully. (the strength of the muscle contraction is proportional to the initial length of the muscle fibers)
  64. lymphatic system
    moves tissue fluid that accumulates outside of capillaries
  65. what is the path that lymph travels through the body and where does it end up?
    lymph moves from small to larger vessels and finally empties into the toracic ducts that empty into large veins at the base of the neck.
  66. What moves lymph through the body?
    lymph is moved through vessels by skeletal muscle contractions (however lower vertebrates, except fish, have lymph hearts) and the vessels have smooth muscle and one-way valves to prevent backflow
  67. lymph nodes
    • major sites of lymphocyte production
    • the nodes are also filters that have phagocytic cells to remove microbes and foreign matter
  68. atherosclerosis
    • hardening of arteries
    • often leads to heart attack or stroke
  69. plaque
    deposits formed at the damaged sites on the lining of arteries and narrows the lumen of the artery. Platelets stick to plaque and form clots (thrombusses) further blocking arteries
  70. lipid/cholesterol deposition
    invites fivrous connective tissue and calcium deposits, making arteries less elastic
  71. Thrombus
    blood clot
  72. Coronary thrombosis
    blocks an artery causing a heart attack (mycardial infarction, MI)
  73. Myocardial infraction
    heart attack
  74. embolism
    fractured thrombus
  75. stroke
    embolism lodges in a vessel in the brain
  76. plasma
    fluid matrix of blood
  77. serum
    plasma minus clotting proteins
  78. cellular components of blood
    • RBC (erythrocyes)
    • White blood cells (leukocyes)
    • Platelets (cell fragements)
  79. Hematocrit
    a measure of the cellular portions as a percentage of total blood volume
  80. RBCs
    • Make up most of the cells in blood
    • Mature ones are biconcave, flexable and packed with hemoglobin
    • Responsible for transporation of O2
    • Generated in/by the stem cells of bone marrow of lone bones
  81. Erythropoietin
    A hormone responsible for regulation of RBCs from the kidney in response to hypoxia-inducible factor
  82. Hypoxia-inducible factor
    a transcription factor inducing EP (erythropoietin) produced by tissues experiencing hypoxia
  83. Bone marrow
    • Generates 2 million RBC/second
    • Location where cells divide multiple imes and produce hemoglobin
    • When the hemoglobin level reaches 30% of the cell volume, cell organelles and nucleus break down (mammals only) and the cell enteres circulation
    • Each cells lives ~120 days
  84. Spleen's Function with RBCs
    • Serves as a reseroir for old blood cells that have been squeezed and ruptured
    • Cell remants are broken down by macrophages
  85. Megakaryocytes
    White blood cells responsible for breaking off cell fragments (platelets)
  86. Platelets
    contrain enzymes and chemicls necessary for blood clotting
  87. Collagen fibers
    • exposed when blood vessels are damaged
    • activates platelets
  88. Clotting factors
    Released by sticky activated platelets that activate other platelets and initiate clotting
  89. Chemical cascade for blood clotting
    • Cell damage activates platelets
    • Activation platelets convert inactive prothrombin to active thrombin
    • Thrombin causes the plasma protein fibrinogen to polymerize forming firbrin threads
    • Fibrin threads form a meshwork to seal the damages vessel and provide a base for scar tissue
  90. Contents of plasma
    • Gases, ions, nutrients, proteins, hormones, and other chemicals
    • Ions - mainly Na+ and Cl-
    • Nutrients - glucose, amino acids, lipids, lactic acid, and cholesterol
    • Proteins - albumin, antibodies, hormones, and carrier molecules
  91. Plasma vs tissue fluid
    Plasma has a higher concentration of proteins
  92. Neural and hormonal mechanisms
    Control the circulatory system at a local and systemic levels.
  93. Autoregulatory mechanisms
    • Tissues regulating its own blood flow via contriction or dilation of aterioles
    • Total autoregulatory actions influence the pressure and composition of blood
    • Nervous and endocrine systems respond to any changes by influencing breathing, heart rate, and blood distribution
  94. Precapillary sphincters
    • Constrcition or relaxation of sphincters regulates blood enters a capillary bed
    • Low O2 and high CO2 levels cause smooth muscle to relax and increase flow in the capillary beds
  95. Hyperenmia
    • excess blood
    • Activities that incrase metabolism of the tissue also increase blood flow or hyperemia in the tissue.
  96. Norepinephrine
    sympathetic response that causes most vascular smooth muscles to contract, reducing blood flow. Chronic firing
  97. Acetylcholine
    • Released by sympathetic neurons and causes smooth muscle of aterioles to relax and dialte, increasing blood flow
    • Non-chronic
  98. Hormones responsible for arteriole constriction
    • Epinephrine
    • Angiotensin
    • Vasopressin
  99. Control center for heart rate and blood vessel constriction
    • Medulla
    • Inputs from many sympathetic and parasympathetic aresas
  100. Baroreceptors
    Stretch receptors in the aorta and carotid artery that provide information on blood pressure to the medula
  101. Atrial natriuretic factor
    • Hormone released when the atria are receiving too much venous return
    • Stimulates the kidney to excrete sodium and water
    • Results in reduced blood volume and pressure
  102. Chemoreceptors
    • Stimulate the medulla regulatory system when O2 content falls too low or CO2 becomes too high
    • Emotions and anticipation may cause the medulla to signal an increase in heart rate and blood pressure