honors chem sem. 1 final

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honors chem sem. 1 final
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2011-12-10 16:28:49
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  1. matter
    the stuff that makes the universe is composed of
  2. elements
    • substances that only contain ONE type of atom
    • ex: P
  3. compounds
    substances that are made by bonding (chemicaly) DIFFERENT atoms together in specific amounts
  4. molocules
    a collection of atoms bonded together as a unit
  5. physical change
    change that does not effect the composition of a substance
  6. chemical change
    a change in which a substance becomes a different substance
  7. mixture
    a substnace with variable composition
  8. pure substances
    • always have the same composition
    • (cannot be physically separated into physical parts)
  9. distilation
    separation process that depends on the boiling point of substances
  10. filtration
    separation of a solid and a liquid by using filter paper
  11. proton
    • +1 charge
    • located in nucleus
    • 1 AMU
  12. electron
    • -1 charge
    • in electron cloud
    • 0 AMU
  13. neutron
    • 0 charge
    • located in nucleus
    • 1 AMU
  14. isotopes
    atoms with the same # of protons but different # of neutrons
  15. Radioactive decay
    radioactive isotopes that have an unstable nuclei that emist particles means that the isotope is going through...
  16. alpha particle reduction
    a helium nucleus is produced in this type of radioctive decay
  17. beta particle reduction
    • high speed electrons are produced from the nulceus
    • (add a proton)
  18. gama ray relesase
    a high enery pronton of light compostion id produces in this type of radioactive decay
  19. fission
    the process of slpitting a heavy nucleus into 2 or more stable nuclei with a smaller mass is produced in this tyoe of nuclear energy production
  20. fusion
    the process of combining 2 light nuclei to form a heavier more stable nucleus (nuclear energy production)
  21. diatomic molocules
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
    • flourine
    • chlorine
    • bromine
    • iodine
  22. dmitri mendeleev
    arranged elements in the periodic table based on similar properties
  23. allotrope
    different structural modification of an element
  24. valence electrons
    electrons located in the outermost shell of an element molocule or compound
  25. cations
    (positive) metals that tend to lose one or more electrons to form positive ions
  26. anions
    (negative) nonmetals that tend to gain 1 or more electrons
  27. half life
    the time required for 1/2 of the original sample of radiocative nuclides to decay
  28. acid
    a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution
  29. hydrolic acid
    HCl
  30. sulfuric acid
    H2SO4
  31. nitric acid
    HNO3
  32. phosphoric acid
    H3PO4
  33. acetic acid
    HC2H3O2
  34. formula unit
    the formula unit shows the elements present in the smallest whole number ratios
  35. molecular formula
    formula unit that shows the acutal numbers of atoms in a molocule
  36. formula mass
    mass in atomic units (AMU) of an ionic compunds empirical formula
  37. molecular mass
    mass in atomic units (amu) of a molecular compound's molecular formula
  38. molar mass
    mass in grams of 1 mole
  39. conversion poathway
    mass<-->moles<-->particles
  40. percent composition
    • percent of a compounds mass made up of its constituent elements
    • part over whole * 100
  41. empirical formula
    lowest whole # ratio of atoms in a formula unit (ionic)
  42. 3 steps to solve empirical formulas
    • 1. the % becomes the mass amount
    • 2. convert grams to moles for esch element
    • find the lowest whole # ratio by dividing by the smallest amound or #
  43. hydrates
    a molocule that contains some type of water
  44. 4 signs of a chemical reaction
    • emmision of gas
    • color change
    • frmation of precipitate
    • energy in form of light/heat
  45. why chemical reactions occur
    • formations of a solid
    • formation of water
    • transfer of electrons
    • formation of gas
  46. storng acid
    an acid in which virtually every mollocule dissociates in water to create an H+ ion and an anion
  47. strong acid examples
    • HCl
    • HNO3
    • H2NO3
  48. strong base
    a metal hydroxide that is completely soluble in watergiving separate OH- ions and cations
  49. examples of strong bases
    • NaOH
    • KOH
  50. single displacment
    a single atom reacts with a compound and replaves one of the elements in the compound
  51. double displacment
    2 ionic compounds exchange ions to form new compounds
  52. combustion reactions
    a chemical reaction involving oxygen as a reactant that produces enough heat that a flame results
  53. synthesis
    a chem reaction in which a compound is formed from simpler materials
  54. decomposition
    single reactent is broken down into 2 or more simple compounds or elements
  55. stoichiometry
    relative quantaties of reactants and products involved in the reaction
  56. mole ratio
    this is indicated by coefficients in a balanced equation
  57. steps to solve a stoichiometry problem
    • 1. write a balanced equation
    • 2. identify knowns and unknowns
    • 3. use fence and rail
    • 4. check answer
  58. limiting reactant
    determines how much of each product can be made
  59. excess reactant
    this is added to ensure that the other reactant is completly used up
  60. steps to solving a limiting reactant
    • 1. recognize the limitiong reactant
    • 2. perform a gram-to-gram stoichiometry problem on the first reactant
    • 3. repeat on second reactant
    • 4. look at which calculation gave you the least ammount of product formed
  61. theoretical yiled
    ammount of product that shoule be make with an equation
  62. actual yield
    the amount of a product actually produced
  63. percent yield
    percent for theoretical yiled actualy produced
  64. cyanide
    • CN
    • -1
  65. peroxide
    • O2
    • -2
  66. permanaganate
    • M2O4
    • -1
  67. hydroxide
    • OH
    • -1
  68. ammonium
    • NH4
    • +1
  69. acetate
    • C2H3O2
    • -1
  70. hydrogen carbonate
    • HCO3
    • -1
  71. carbonate
    • CO3
    • -2
  72. perchlorate
    • ClO4
    • -1
  73. Hypochlorate
    • ClO
    • -1
  74. chlorate
    • ClO2
    • -1
  75. dichromate
    • Cr2O7
    • -2
  76. chromate
    • CrO7
    • -2
  77. nitrate
    • NO3
    • -1
  78. nitrite
    • NO2
    • -1
  79. hydrogen phosphate
    • HPO4
    • -2
  80. dihydrogen phosphate
    • H2PO4
    • -2
  81. phosphate
    • PO4
    • -3
  82. sulfate
    • SO4
    • -2
  83. sulfite
    • SO3
    • -2
  84. Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate)
    • HSO4
    • -1

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