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The event that populated California?
The gold rush
Where & when was CA's constitution drafted?
The Constition of 1849 was based off of which other state?
Who was allowed to vote in CA according to the constituiton of 1849?
White males, property owners, age 21+, "idiots" not allowed...
CA's first constution was similar to what & why?
The federal govt's; because it included 3 branches.
The boundries of CA were set where?
According to CA's natural boundries (sierras...)
CA's first state capital?
Who was the 1st governor of CA?
Why were women given property rights in CA?
To attract women to CA because CA was only 8% women in 1849.
What percent of the voters approved of CA's first constituition?
Was CA for or against slavery?
Against. It was a "free" state.
After CA's voters approved the 1st constitiution, what happened?
It went to the federal government to be ratified.
Why was there opposition to CA becoming a state?
Because it broke the balance of free and slave states; it made free states the majority.
Who was the president that signed CA's constitution of 1849?
Philmore in 1850.
What was the "Southern Pacific Railroad" and why was it significant?
- A railroad company founded in 1861;
- became a political machine that dominated CA politics through 1900.
- Founded by the "big four".
Who were the "Big Four"?
- Leland Standford
- Collis Hunington
What did the "Big Four" do?
- -sold mining supplies
- -net worth increased from $100,000 to $200 million
Why was the Southern Pacific Railroad so powerful?
- It was a monopoly in CA.
- If you wanted to ship anything, you had to go through them.
- They bought off newspapers.
- They paid off polititians.
What was the "workingman's party"?
A political organization that blamed economic difficulties on the railroad & the chinese.
What was the "grange movement"?
- Small farmers who opposed the railroad.
- They united with the workmen's party & called CA's second constitution ammendment.
The constitution of 1879 mandated what?
- The regulation of railroads, utilities, banks & other corporations.
- Fairness of local tax assessments on railroads and their friends & enemies.
Who were the progressives?
- Anti-machine reform movement
- Reshaped CA's political instituions between 1907 & the 1920's.
How did the progressives make elections "nonpartisan"?
By removing party labels from ballots.
What is "direct democracy"?
- Introduced by the progressives...
- it allowed voters to amend constitution & create laws...
Like the Workingman's party before them, the progressives were concerned with _______________ .
More positive changes made by the progressives included...
- giving women the right to vote,
- passing child labor & worker's comp aws,
- implemented conservation programs to protect natural resources.
The railroad's political machine eventually died largely because of ....
The progressive reforms.
How did the progressives institute their reforms?
By amending the constitution (rather than calling for another convention).
Direct democracy enabled voters & interests groups to...
amend the constitution.
CA's population grew by more than __________ people in the 1920's.
During the great depression of the 1933, the unemployment rate was at ________ percent.
In 1934, ________ percent of CA's population was on government assistance.
Up to 1930 CA had ______ % republicans & ______ % democrates.
70 & 25
Migration to CA in the 1930's led to what?
A political change in CA.
By 1938 CA was ____% democrates & ______% republicans.
59% & 35%
As of 2011, CA is _______% republicans & _______% democrates.
44% & 31%
Democrates numbers have ______________ over the last couple of decades in CA.
What gets us out of the great depression?
The building of _____________ in CA helped get us out of the great depression.
Democrates largely reside in ________, __________, & __________.
Bay area, Sacramento, & L.A.
Republicans largely reside in ____________, ____________, & ____________.
N. CA, Orange County, & San Bernadino.
Humboldt is largely made up of voters for the _________ party.
In 1909, the reform legislators replaced party conventions with ____________.
Primary elections are ....
Elections which registered voters of each party choose a nominee.
General elections are .....
where candidates who won their party's primary face other nominees.
The reformers ended the machine's control of the nomination process by.....
Instituting a system with primary & general elections.
The progressives did what in order to give policymaking back to the people?
Introduced direct democracy.
What is "cross filing"?
- Introduced by the progressives,
- permitted candidates of one party to seek nominations from rival parties.
Non-partisan elections are ....
- Elections which eliminated party labels
- for electing judges, school board members, & local government officials.
These 3 changes reduced the railroad's control of the political parties:
- Primary/General elections
- nonpartisan elections
_________ encouraged voters to vote for members of differenct parties for office, increasing likelihood of a divided-party government.
Deletion of the party column (split-ticket voting).
The state __________ is the highest-ranking body in each party.
the central committee consists of _____________...
- all party candidates and officeholders
- county chairpersons
Direct democracy consists of what three parts?
The least used-form of direct democracy is __________.
When voters remove an office holder at any level of government between scheduled elections, it is called __________.
A recall petition for a judge requires how many signatures?
20% of the vote.
During a recall, petitioners have ________ days to collect signatures.
A referandum allows voters to ....
nullify acts of the legislature.
Referandum advocates have ______ days after legislature makes a law to collect _______ percent of the votes cast for governor in the previous election.
Initiatives allow voters to ....
make policy themselves by drafting a new law or constitiutional amendment & then circulating petitions.
CA's first constition in 1849, was a ____________ legislature similar to the US Congress.
Reynold v. Sims was significant because....
- it ordered all states to organize their upper houses by population rather than territory.
- in CA, the shift increased urban & southern representation dramatically.
Redistricing is ...
the process where every 10 years states realign their legislative districts so that they have the same population.
As of January 2010, CA's population was...
- The voters FIRST initiative.
- placed redistricting in the hands of a 14 member independent commission.
- an initiative that limited elected executive branch officers & state senators to two 4-year terms
- & assembly members to three 2-year terms
- while reducing the legislatures operating budget/staff by 38 percent.
Of the 15 states with term-limit legislation in place, CA is tied with ________ & _________ for the strictest condidions in the nation.
The _______________ is clearly in charge of the assembly, which is the larger of the two house.
speaker of the assembly
The speaker controls...
the flow of legislation, designation of committee chairs & assignments, & distribution of vast campaign funds to the members of his or her political party.
Because the assembly is larger, it is more _____________ in organization.
Before the term-limits era, speakers often held their positions for ______ years or more.
Term-limits were set in the year ______, and they limit tenures of speakers to _______ years.
The most powerful member of the senate is ________.
the president pro tem.
Both the president pro tem & the speaker of the assembly are elected by _______________.
the majority party after each election.
The key to senate power lies with the _____________ or ______________ committee.
The flow of legislation in the senate is controled by
- the rules/senate committee
- & is chaired by the president pro tem
- provides fiscal expertise,
- reviews annual budget,
- assesses progams that affect the state coffers.
- employs about 80 attorneys,
- draft bills for legislators,
- determine the potential impact of existing legislature.
assists the legislature by periodically reviewing ongoing programs.
__________________ is required to pass basic laws.
Absolute majority (21 votes in the senate, 41 votes in the assembly).
________________ votes in both houses are required for more urgent matters or to override the governor's veto.
Two-thirds Absolute vote.
Rules committee decide the route of a bill, & can affect a bills fate by....
sending it to "friendly" or "hostile" committees.
During the formal process, a bill.....
- 1) is moved across the desk,
- 2) is read 3 times
- 3) is sent to other house & than read 3 more times
- 4) is returned to orginal house w/or w/out reccomendations or is killed
A give-and-take bargaining process in which legislators agree to support each other's bills.
- When legislators cast electronic votes in place of assembly members who are not at their posts;
- this practice is illegal.