Psychology

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Psychology
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  1. Psychology
    the science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)
  2. Psychology's Scientific Perspectives
    • psychodynamics
    • psychoanalysis
    • behavorism
    • cognitive/experimental
  3. Psychodynamics
    how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
  4. Psychoanalysis
    • (evolved from) unconscious motivations (look at how childhood trauma affects adult behavior-sex motivation/aggression)
    • Freud was one
  5. Behavorism
    • observation, alot of cause/ effect,learned experiences
    • how fear is developed
    • what brings about addiction
  6. Cognitive/ Experimental
    • born of expirements
    • cognitive scientists obsessed with languages
    • mental processes,memory, attention, problem solving
  7. Evolutionary
    looking at expressions, raw animal behavior, evolutionary scientists study packs of wolves for alphas, "gazing"
  8. Social
    how your behavior and thinking is affected by interaction with others, how crowds act vs. individuals
  9. Personality
    study variances in personalities
  10. Cross-cultural Psychology
    how it applies to different ethnicity, cultures, backgrounds, most common study is cultural born psychological disorders (american/western's is eating disorder-ex. annerexia, bolima; which affects mainly early adult women, w/ men its buffing up)
  11. Neuroscience/ Biological Psychology
    • biological psychologist and neuroscientists
    • interested in brain how it enables emotions, behaviors, mental processing
    • nervous system
    • memory storage-like where is high school prom stored
  12. Developmental Psychology
    how people grow up and how psychology is affected because of that
  13. Gerentology
    • population lives longer
    • study old and young
  14. Environmental Psychology
    • how surroundings impact someone
    • ex. winter:depression
  15. Psychology's Subfeilds
    • pure research
    • applied research
  16. Pure Research
    research conducted without concern for immediate applications, theoretical
  17. Applied Research and Application
    • applying research to real-world situations
    • industrial/organizational psychologists (lay people off)
    • clinical psychologists: area that deals with psychological disorders
    • counseling psychologists: deal with adjustment problems
    • psychiatry: have medical degree and prescribe medications
    • other subfeilds: sports psychology, legal psychology experts
  18. Ancient Psychology
    Budda, Confucious, african/egyptian moral codes
  19. The Nature-Nurture Debate
    • "innate" genes vs. "environment"
    • Socrates/Plato thought we were born with everything we need
    • Aristotle (learned from Plato) thought we need experience (start with blank slate)
  20. The Mind-Body Problem
    • dualism (seperate) vs. monism (same)
    • Socrates thought his body would die but mind would go on
    • Aristotle thought both will go
  21. Monism
    mind tied to body, can study both
  22. Empiricism
    gathering/ collecting knowledge through experience
  23. Wilhelm Wundt
    • (1832-1920)
    • (german papa to psychology)
    • interested in measuring reflex time
    • mind has 3 basic elements -sensation, feelings, images -experience
  24. Structuralism
    elemental structure of human kind
  25. Introspection
    describing your conscious experience
  26. William James
    • (1842-1910)
    • (american father to psychology)
    • dynamic well liked teacher at Harvard
    • brother of Henry James, cousin to Darwin
  27. Mary Calkins
    • (1863-1930)
    • enrolled as a student in William James class' all other students dropped out
    • she studied and finished college, but Harvard would not give her her PH.D
    • went on to be first female president of APA
  28. The Need for Psychological Science
    • Psychologist, like all scientist use the scientist method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypthesis
    • use to seperate "folk" knowledge from something that is scientifically verified
  29. Hindsight Bias
    after learning an outcome, learn should have seen it coming
  30. Overconfidence
    correlated with self esteem
  31. Critical Thinking
    • thinking that doesnt blindly accept arguements and conclusions (smart thinking)
    • examines assumptions (like do opposites attract?)
    • discerns hidden values
    • evaluates evidence
  32. Scientific Method
    • theory
    • hypothesis
    • replication
  33. Theory
    • an integrated set of facts or principles
    • use that information to predict/ make judgements
  34. Hypothesis
    • testable prediction
    • ex. low self esteem feeds depression (incorrect) vs. people who score low on a self esteem scale will score high on depression symptomology (correct hypothesis)
    • made up of operational definition
  35. Replication
    the more tested the more proven
  36. Description
    • case study
    • survey
    • naturalistic observation
    • correlation
  37. Case study
    • a psychologist will study with a single individual over great length and at great depth with hopes of finding understanding to whole population
    • disadvatage-can't always take 1 person's information and apply it to whole population
    • advantage-only having to work with one person, convenient
    • can also test run for larger population
  38. Survey
    • technique for collecting attitudes of people
    • typically a self-report
    • random sample (sample thats representing population fairly)
    • stratified sample
    • population
  39. Naturalistic Observation
    trying to observe and record behavior in naturally occering situations
  40. Correlation
    • coefficient
    • correlation coefficient r=+.37 (.37 indicates strength of relationship and is week, + indicates direction of relationship (+ or -)
    • illusionary correlation
    • correlation does not equate to causation
  41. Experimentation
    • an investigator will manipulate a factor to see how they impact a behavior or mental process
    • independent variable
    • dependent variable
    • experimental condition
    • control condition
    • blind procedures
  42. Independent Variable
    the experimental factor that is being manipulated
  43. Dependent Variable
    the variable that depends on the independent variable
  44. Expiremental Condition
    researchers are interested in
  45. Control Condition
    the one that is looked at but not interested in
  46. Blind Procedures
    • single blind- takers don't know which condition
    • double blind- researchers and takers don't know
  47. Statistical Reasoning
    • measures of central tendency (mode, mean, median)
    • measures of variation (range, standard variation)
    • statistical significance- for something to be important in science, we can determine the difference statistically (95%)
  48. Motivation
    • a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
    • includes need and drive
  49. Instinct
    • happens automatically
    • a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
  50. Need
    • a boldly state of requirement/ depravation then it leads us to wanting something
    • ex. deprived/ thirst
  51. Drive
    • feeling of thirst
    • condition of arousal
  52. Primary Drive
    directly tied to survival (thirst, hunger, sleep, pain)
  53. Aquired Drive
    • (money) gained through experience
    • (social affiliation, social approval)
  54. Drive- Reduction Theory
    • Need>Drive>Drive-Reducing behaviors
    • (food,water) (hunger, thirst) )(eating,drinking)
  55. Homeostasis
    • "staying the same"
    • incentive- goal, reward
    • a tendency to maintaina balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
  56. Humanistic Theory
    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beggining at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active (physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, self-transcendence needs)
  57. (Inner) Intristic Motivation
    comes from with in (sports love with in)
  58. (Outer) Extrinsic Motivation
    push froms omeone else, environment
  59. Motivation at work and school
    • task leadership
    • social leadership
    • theory x
    • theory y
  60. Task Leadership
    goal oriented, organized but only focused on goal
  61. Social Leadership
    group-oriented, teamwork and support
  62. Theory X
    unmotivation, lazy, here for money, no success
  63. Theory Y
    assumes given a chance/ oppurtunity, will prove succesful, make it on their own
  64. Hunger
    • Anorexia Nervosa: perception of being overweight lends to strict diets until underweight
    • Bulima Nervosa: binging leading to purging, starving, excessive excersize or laxative abuse
  65. Sex
    physiologically based motive like hunger/thirst, but is more affected by learning values, ethics, religion and beliefs
  66. Phases of Sex
    • (sexual response cycle)
    • excitement
    • plateau
    • orgasm
    • resolution/re-factory period
  67. Excitement Phase
    • (men are constantly excited)
    • happens during foreplay or in preliminary actions that lead to sex
  68. Plateau Phase
    persons ready to have sex or act of sex plateau is happening
  69. Orgasm
    • men have one good wow orgasm moment
    • women vary in the feeling, and may have multiple orgams
  70. Resolution/Re-fractory Period
    • drop off back to
    • a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
  71. Activating Effects
    chemicals/hormones in the body will actually contribute to our sex drives (testosteron/estrogen)
  72. Organizing Effects
    • behavior itself, contributes toward mating patterns (in animals)
    • psychological readiness, imagined stimuli, external stimuli; lead to sexual motivation
  73. Information Processing
    • stimulus
    • sensory/memory register- idead that our mind is able to hold memory for a very short period of time, subconcious
    • visual (iconic)
    • auditory (echoic)
  74. Short Term Memory
    store of memory, limited and held in our consciousness
  75. Capacity of Memory Span
    • the "magic #"
    • 7 +/-2 units
    • chunking
  76. Working Memory
    • (maps onto short term memory)
    • allows for the manipulation of information in STM
    • focuses on processing of briefly stored information
    • limited capacity
  77. Long Term Memory
    • relatively long-lasting memory storage
    • limitless storehouse
    • LTM is not held in consciousness
    • filing cabinet
  78. Types of LTM
    • (knowledge)
    • declarative memory
    • procedural memory
    • (retrieval)
    • explicit memory
    • implicit memory
  79. Declarative Memory
    • knowledge of facts and events
    • semantic and episodic
  80. Semantic Memory
    memory for facts
  81. Episodic Memory
    remembering stories of an event
  82. Procedural Memory
    • knowledge of skills
    • ex. tieing your shoe while talking and not looking (you just know it)
  83. Explicit Memory
    • requires conscious recollection
    • recall
    • recognition
    • declarative memory
  84. Implicit Memory
    • memory without conscious recollection, relies on influence of prior experience
    • nondeclarative memory
    • priming-ex. product placement in movie, makes you subconsciously want it later
  85. How do we "remember"?
    • encoding
    • storage
    • retrieval
  86. Encoding
    get information and turn it into a useable form
  87. Storage
    process of maintaining information/memory over a long period of time
  88. Levels of Processing
    • maintenence rehearsal
    • elaborative rehearsal
  89. Maintenence Rehearsal
    memorizing
  90. Elaborative Rehearsal
    conceptualizing/comprehending
  91. Organization
    • primary effect
    • recency effect
  92. Primacy Effect
    • the ability to remember certain items better
    • ex. repeat 1st word more than last
  93. Recency Effect
    • remeber more recent word first
    • ability to remember last items better than other presented items
  94. Emotional Memory
    hold on to it more closely (9/11 event)
  95. Transfer- Appropriate Processing
    • context-dependent memory
    • mood-congruent memory
  96. Context-Dependent Memory
    practice high/under H2O, test better high/under H2O
  97. Mood-Congruent Memory
    • the tendency tor ecall experiences that are conssitent with one's current good or bad mood
    • if happy when learned will do better, be happy on test
  98. Forgetting
    • the inability to recall previously learned information
    • Ebbinghav's forgetting curve
  99. Why do we "forget"?
    • decay
    • interference
    • motivation
    • false memories
  100. Decay
    fading of "memory trace" (use it or lose it)
  101. Interference/Distraction
    • memories are lost because replaced, or confused with others
    • proactive or retroactive interference
  102. Proactive Interference
    old memories make new memories difficult to retrieve
  103. Retroactive Interference
    new information interferes with retrieval of old information
  104. Motivation
    • lack of/ or motivation to remember
    • repression
  105. Repression
    • the exclusion of painful memories, from awareness
    • not being able to acces it, it exists but access is painful
    • can't scientifically prove it exists
  106. False Memories
    rely on a hunch
  107. Other Imperfections of Memory
    • suggestibility (gulible)
    • eyewitness memory
    • "implanted" memory
  108. Eyewitness Testimony
    • confidence and accuracy on the witness stand (confidence doesn't help)
    • preschoolers as compared to older chidren or adults (not reliable)
    • suggestible techniques and preschoolers
    • are children credible witnesses (aviod suggestible techniques and yes they are)
  109. Biological Bases of Memory
    • cerebal cortex
    • amygdala
    • hippocampus
    • cerebellum
  110. Cerebal Cortex
    serves role of excecutive functioning
  111. Amygdala
    deals with emotions
  112. Hippocampus
    responsible for creating new memories
  113. Cerebellum
    involved in our procedural part of the brain
  114. Disorders of Memory
    • anterograde amnesia
    • retrograde amnesia
    • alzhelimer's disease
  115. Anterograde Amnesia
    inability to form new memories since injury/illness
  116. Retrograde Amnesia
    cannot remember memories before injury/illness
  117. Biological Psychology
    • branch of psychology that deals with the relationship between pysiology and psychology
    • includes biologists, neuroscientists, psychologists with Ph.D or medical degree
  118. Neuron
    • a nerve cell, basic building block of the nervous system
    • cell body
    • dendrites
    • axon
    • action potential
    • axon terminals
    • myelin sheath
  119. Axon
    • action potential travels down the axon
    • the extensionof a neuron, eding in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  120. Action Potential
    • neural impulse
    • a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
  121. Axon Terminals
    Terminal branches
  122. Neural Communication
    • communication between neurons
    • synapse
    • synaptic cleft (gap)
  123. Synapse
    junction between termianl branches and dendrites of seperate neurons
  124. Neurotransmitters
    chemical messengers that exist within synaptic gap
  125. The Steps to Neuron Firing
    • resting Potential (-70mV) (millovolts)
    • action potential (-50mV to +40mV)
  126. Resting Potential
    (-70mV) not communicating at resting potential
  127. Action Potential (-50mV to +40mV)
    • when neuron fires/sends the impulse
    • at -50mV threshold of excitation (when neuron fires)
    • positive ions flow in, membrane potential quickly increases to +40mV
    • positive ions flow out, decrease to -70mV
    • goes into refractory period (resolution phase)
  128. Acetylcholine
    enables muscle action, learning and memory
  129. Dopamine
    involved with emotional arrousal (how body deals with pleasure and reward), influences movement, learning and attention
  130. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
    deals with fear (outside the brain calles adrenaline)
  131. Endorphins
    • "morphine within"
    • natural, opiatlike neurotransmitters linked to pain and control and to pleasure linked to mood
  132. Serotonin
    linked to our moods, sleep and arousal (linked to depression)
  133. Agonist
    outside agent, similar enough to lock into neurotransmitter molecule and will cause it to fire
  134. Antagonist
    enough for molecule to lock into place but neuron isnt fired at all (anesthetice)
  135. Curare
    inhibits muscle movement (antagonist)
  136. Central Nervous System
    brain and spinal cord
  137. Peripheral Nervous System
    neurons that connect back to the CNS
  138. Somatic Nervous System
    controls our muscles (skeletal) (have control)
  139. Autonomic Nervous System
    • involved with glands, muscles of our internal organ system such as heartbeat (automatic)
    • sympathetic and parasympathetic
  140. Sympathetic Nervous System
    ramps the body up, body gets tense
  141. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    calms the body down
  142. Nerves
    • sensory neurons (touch, feeling of warmth/cold)
    • carry information from outside body- the world into CNS
    • Motor neurons-information coming from brain spinal cord to move body
    • intereurons
  143. Reflex
    a simple automatic response to a sensory, stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
  144. Endocrine System
    the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hromones into the bloodstream
  145. Hormones
    chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
  146. Adrenal Glands
    a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secret hormoness (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress
  147. Pituitary Gland
    • the endocrine system's most influential gland
    • under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
  148. Techniques for Studying the Brain
    patient/case studies- phineas gage and spilt brain case
  149. The Brainstem
    • responsible for many autmatic survival functions
    • medulla
    • reticular
    • thalamus
    • cerebellum
  150. Medulla
    in control of heartbeat and breathing
  151. Reticullar Formation
    important for arousal/awakedness (from forms of unconsciousness to consciousness)
  152. Thalamus
    a sensory switchboard (communicating info everywhere)
  153. Cerebellum
    involved with controlling voluntary movement and balance
  154. The Limbic System
    • involved with drive, deals with emotion like fear and aggression
    • amydala
    • hippocampus
    • hypothalamus
  155. Amygdala
    linked to aggression and fear
  156. Hippocampus
    • involved with creating new memory
    • a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
  157. Hypothalamus
    in charge of pituitary gland, associated with drives, controlling body temperature, controls endocrine system (referred to as pleasure/reward center)
  158. Cerebral Cortex
    • nerve cells
    • glial cells
    • frontal lobe
    • parietal lobe
    • occipital lobe
    • temporal lobe
  159. Frontal Lobe
    speaking and muscle movements, making plans and judgements
  160. Parietal Lobe
    sensory cortex
  161. Occipital Lobe
    visual
  162. Terminal Lobe
    involved with auditory/hearing, understanding language
  163. Phrenology
    • people that potrayed themselves as scientists said they could describe the parts of the brain based on its shape
    • Gall (around 1800)
    • pseudoscience
    • motor cortex
    • somatosensory cortex
    • visual cortex
    • auditory cortex
    • broca's area
    • wernicke's area
  164. Motor Cortex
    creating voluntary movements
  165. Somatosensory Cortex
    recieves information from the body
  166. Visual Cortex
    deals with vision
  167. Auditory Cortex
    hearing
  168. Broca's Area
    part of motor cortex that controls our facial muscles, deals with speech creation
  169. Wernicke's Area
    deals with understanding/comprehending speech
  170. The Cerebral Cortex
    • output motor cortex
    • input somatosensory cortex
    • corpus callosom
  171. Output Motor Cortex
    controls right side
  172. Input Somatosensory Cortex
    receives from right side
  173. Corpus Callosom
    • large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
    • lateralized- left:language, analytical, logical reasoning
    • right:spatial abilities, music, art
  174. Learning
    change in behavior due to experience
  175. John B. Watson (1878-1958)
    • behavorism
    • veiwed psychology as objective science
    • recommended study of behavior alone, without reference to mental processes
  176. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
    • russian physician/neurophysiologist
    • studied classical conditioning
    • tied dog up and measured salvation by presenting food
  177. Unconditioned Stimulus
    the food presented to the dog
  178. Uncondition Response
    • the salvation for the food
    • naturally occurs to UCS, unlearned
  179. Neutral Stimulus
    tuning fork, presented to the dog; dog has no reaction to noise
  180. Associative Learning
    when tuning fork is presented with food to dog
  181. Conditioned Stimulus
    • now dog presented with noise only makes dog salvate
    • triggers a conditioned response, referred to as "neutral" before
  182. Conditioned Response
    a learned response to a previously neutral condition
  183. Aquisition
    initial stage in classical conditioning, where you associate
  184. Extinction
    when conditioned stimulus and conditioned response are dissasociated
  185. Spontaneous Recovery
    reappearence of a conditioned response after a rest period
  186. Generalization
    • when you generalize the conditioned response to other similar stimuli
    • ex. cats response to can opening
  187. Other Aspects of Classical Conditioning
    • not everything can be conditioned
    • the conditioned stimulis must make sense
    • some unconditioned responses are very strong
  188. Operant Conditioning
    reaction to environment presented
  189. Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)
    • "Law of Effect"
    • operants
    • ex. cat put in box, learns how to escape, learns exact spot to escape, and a quicker escape each day to get food presented
  190. Operant Contioning Aspects
    • strengthen by reinforcement
    • diminished followed by punishment
    • behaviors followed by favored consequences become more liekely, behaviors followed by unfavored consequences become less likely (words of Thorndike)
  191. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
    • elaborated on Thorndike's ideas
    • Skinner box-tested mouse
  192. Reinforcer
    • any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
    • can be negative/positive
  193. Shaping
    getting a participant to accomplish a more complex goal, after you have reinforced a simple goal
  194. Reinforcers
    • primary
    • conditioned
    • delayed
  195. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • continuous reinforcement
    • intermittent reinforcement
    • varying reinforcement
  196. Continuous Reinforcement
    perform action, response happens everytime
  197. Intermittent Reinforcement
    perform action, response does not happen everytime
  198. Fixed Ratio
    • person receives reinforcement after a specified # of responses
    • ex. sell 5 cars, get payed, repeat
  199. Variable Ratio
    • where reinforcement is unpredictable
    • ex. gambling-play to win, but don't know if you'll win
    • addiction-don't know how high you'll get
    • fishing-cast and will maybe catch a fish
  200. Fixed Interval
    get reinforcement only after time has elapsed
  201. Variable Interval
    reinforcement comes at an unpredictable time interval
  202. Punishment
    • decreases behavior
    • adding stimulus-positive (addition)
    • taking things away-negative (subtraction)
  203. Types of Punishers
    • + administer an adverse stimulus (spanking, a parking ticket)
    • - withdraw a desirable stimulus (time-out, taking away priveleges, revoked driver's license)
  204. Downfall of Behavorism
    • behavorists were ignored
    • due to rise of technology-being able to examine the mental process
  205. Rise of Cognitive Psychology
    • Skinner;
    • elaborated Thorndike's law of effect
    • developed behavorial technology
  206. Social Psychology
    • you need atleast two people
    • still focused on individual but with the connection of the other person
  207. Social Thinking
    Attributional Theory and Fundamental Attribution Error
  208. Attributional Theory
    • behavior is situational
    • judge through disposition (behavior is them not situation)- Dispositional Theory
  209. Fundamental Attribution Error
    • culturally bound attributions to western cultures (US, European society)
    • attrbution: why is ashley like a dimwit?
    • situational: she's under pressure
    • dispositional: "she's self involed and clueless"
    • fundamental attribution error: person making judgement ignores influence of situation and over estimates influence of dispositional attribution
  210. Foot-In-Door Phenomenon
    • people who have agreed to a small request tend to comply later to a larger request
    • ex. when already buying a combo at BK, cashier asks to supersize?
    • you'll probably say yes to an upgrade
    • Freedman and Fraser (1966) signs in lawns
  211. Freedman and Fraser (1966)
    • signs in lawns
    • when presented with a large sign to put in lawn, compliance was only 17%
    • when presented with a small sign at 1st, then later brought a large sign instead, compliance was 76%
    • charities and blood drives work the same
  212. Door-In-The-Face Phenomenon
    • ask for a larger deman and people say no
    • when they say no, immediately ask for something more reasonable
    • ex.give me $200; no
    • okay how about $20?; ok
  213. Role
    set of expectations about a social position
  214. Cognitive Dissonance
    • attitude and behavior are inconsistent
    • somethings got to give
  215. Social Influence
    • conformity
    • normative social influence
  216. Conformity
    someone adjusts behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
  217. Normative Social Influence
    actions are to gain or get acknowledgement from someone else
  218. The Chameleon Effect
    where you match the behaviors of others around you
  219. Asch's Conformity Experiment (1956)
  220. Psychological Disorders
    Biological-Psychological-Social
  221. Biological
    evolution, individual genes, brain structure and chemistry
  222. Psychological
    stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood-related perceptions
  223. Social
    roles, expectations, definitions of normality and disorder
  224. Medical Model
    idea that you have to diagnose, figure out different disorders
  225. Etiology
    • DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    • Neurotic and Psychotic disorders
  226. Neurotic Disorder
    • distressing, but allows person to think rationall and act socially
    • ex. anxiety, depression (still allow connection to other people, and function)
  227. Psychotic Disorder
    • a person looses contact with reality, disconnect with their conscious state and reality
    • ideas become distorted and irrational
    • ex.hearing voices, someone's after them..
  228. Anxiety Disorders
    • more common
    • distressing and persistent worry, the behaviors do not reduce the anxiety either
  229. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • tense and apprehensive, constat state of stress
    • level of alerness, tenseness is high (arousal)
  230. Panic Disorder
    • high level of anxiety that already exists but comes out in intense episodes (few minutes) during this they actually panic in terror
    • end up changing behavior
    • breathing may be affected
    • ex. game at stadium-triggers attack, they then change behavior and no longer attend games
    • then grocery store, etc. until person won't even leave house
  231. Phobia
    agoraphobia: leaving the house, fear of open spaces
  232. OCD
    • obsessive compulsive disorder
    • unwanted, repetitive thoughts-O
    • the action to act on the thoughts-C
    • becomes or is constant-D
  233. Mood Disrorders-Depression
    stressful experiences-negative explanatory style-depression mood-cognitive and behavorial changes
  234. Manic Episode
    • over excited emotional state
    • irrational behavior
    • engage in activities not normally engaged in
  235. Bipolar Disorder
    mood disorder where person alternates between hopeless feeling/feeling of worthlessness and manic episode state
  236. Personality Disorders
    • impact social functioning
    • something inflexible about character or functioning
    • usually presents with out anxiety
  237. Antisocial Personality Disorders
    • person exhibits lack of conscious
    • may engage in criminal behavior
    • can exhibited as ruthlessnes or cleverness
  238. Schizophrenia
    • word translated as "split mind"
    • not multiple personality disorder
    • symptoms: disorganized and dillusional thinking (typically auditory, paranoid)
    • hallucinations
    • innapropriate emotions (more eratic than bipolar ones)
    • positive (added) symtoms: presence of inapropriate behaviors
    • hallucinations
    • negative symptoms:absence of emotions (flat effect)
  239. Disasociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)
    • person exhibits 2 or more distinct personalities
    • as a child chronically or severly abused (how it develops)
    • ex. sexual assault: personality might be defensive, tough to attacker, or might be promiscuous and accept behavior/attacker
  240. Structuralism
    an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
  241. Functionalism
    a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavorial processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish
  242. Behaviorism
    the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
  243. Humanistic Psychology
    historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth
  244. Cognitive Neuroscience
    the interdisciplinary studay of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
  245. Psychology
    the science of behavior and mental processes
  246. Nature-Nurture Issue
    • the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
    • today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
  247. Natural Selection
    the principle that, among the rande of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
  248. Levels of Analysis
    the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
  249. Biopsychosocial Approach
    an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
  250. Basic Research
    pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
  251. Applied Research
    scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
  252. Counseling Psychology
    a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) an in achieving greater well-being
  253. Clinical Psychology
    a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
  254. Psychiatry
    a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders;practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well a psychological therapy
  255. SQ3R
    survey, question, read, rehearse, review
  256. Culture
    the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
  257. Operational Definition
    • a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables
    • ex. human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
  258. Case Study
    an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
  259. Survey
    a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
  260. Population
    all cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
  261. Random Sample
    a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
  262. Scatterplots
    • a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
    • the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables
    • the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
  263. Illusory Correlation
    the perception of a relationship where none exists
  264. Experiment
    • aresearch method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variable) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)
    • by random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to ocntrol other relevant factors
  265. Random Assignment
    assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
  266. Placebo Effect
    experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
  267. Staistical Significance
    a statistical statement of how likely it is that obtained result occured by chance
  268. Binge-eating Disorder
    significant binge-eating followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the comensatory purging, fasting, or excessive excersize that marks bulimia nervosa
  269. Estrogens
    • sex hormones,such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characterisics
    • in nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
  270. Testosterone
    • the most important of the male sex hormones
    • both males and females have it but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
  271. Sexual Orientation
    an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)
  272. Flow
    a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
  273. Industrial-organizational (I/O) Psychology
    the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
  274. Personnel Psychology
    a subfeild of I/O psychology that focuseson employee recruitment, selection, placement, training appraisal, and development
  275. Organizational Psychology
    a subfield of I/O pscyhology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
  276. Structured Interviews
    interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
  277. Achievement Motivation
    a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard
  278. Emotion
    a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
  279. James-Lange Theory
    the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
  280. Cannon-Bard theory
    the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneousy triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
  281. Two-factor Theory
    the SchachterSinger theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
  282. Catharsis
    • emotional release
    • in psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
  283. Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
    people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
  284. Subjective Well-Being
    • self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
    • used along with measures of objective well-being
    • ex. physical and economic indicators
    • to evaluate people's quality of life
  285. Adaption-Level Phenomenon
    our tendencyto from judgements (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
  286. Relative Deprivation
    the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares onself
  287. Automatic Processing
    unconscious encodingof incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
  288. Effortful Processing
    encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
  289. Rehearsal
    the conscious repitition ofinformation, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
  290. Spacing Effect
    the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
  291. Serial Position Effect
    our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
  292. Visual Encoding
    the encoding of picture images
  293. Acoustic Encoding
    the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
  294. Semantic Encoding
    the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
  295. Imagery
    mental pictures;a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
  296. Mnemonics
    memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
  297. Chunking
    organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
  298. Iconic Memory
    a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
  299. Echoic Memory
    a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
  300. Long-Term Potentiation
    • an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
    • believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
  301. Flashbulb Memory
    a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
  302. Amnesia
    the loss of memory
  303. Recall
    a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
  304. Recognition
    a measuree of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
  305. Relearning
    a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
  306. Priming
    the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
  307. Deja Vu
    • that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
    • cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
  308. Misinformation Effect
    incorporaation misleading information into one's memory of an event
  309. Source Amnesia
    attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (also called source misattribution) source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories
  310. Behavioral Medicine
    an interdisciplinary field that integrates behaviorial and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
  311. Health Psychology
    a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
  312. Stress
    the process by which we percieve and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
  313. General Adaptation Syndrome
    Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three places-alarm, resistance, exhaustion
  314. Dendrite
    the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
  315. Sensory Neurons
    neurons that carry incoming information fromt he sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
  316. Motor Neurons
    neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
  317. Interneurons
    neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
  318. Myelin Sheath
    a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
  319. Threshold
    the level of stimulation requied to trigger a neural impulse
  320. Reuptake
    a neurotransmitter's reabsorbtion by the sending neuron
  321. Nervous System
    the body's speedy, electrochemical communication netwrok, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
  322. Somatic Nervous System
    • the division of th eperipheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
    • also called the skeletal nervous system
  323. Glial Cells
    cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
  324. Association Areas
    areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
  325. Plasticity
    the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizating after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
  326. Neurogenesis
    the formation of new neurons
  327. Split Brain
    a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
  328. Consciousness
    our awareness of ourselves and our environment
  329. Cognitive Neuroscience
    the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cogntion (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
  330. Dual Processing
    the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on seperate conscious and unconscious tracks
  331. Selective Attention
    the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
  332. Inattentional Blindness
    failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed else where
  333. Changed Blindness
    failing to notice changes in the environment
  334. Sensation
    the process by which our sensory recpetors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
  335. Perception
    the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
  336. Bottum-Up Processing
    analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up the the brain's integration of sensory information
  337. Top-Down Processing
    information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
  338. Psychophysics
    the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such ad their intesisty, and our psychological experience of them
  339. Signal Detection Theory
    • a theory predictinng how and when we detect presence of faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise)
    • assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness
  340. Absolute Threshold
    the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
  341. Subliminal
    below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
  342. Priming
    the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
  343. Difference Threshold
    • the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
    • we experience the difference threshold as just noticeable difference
  344. Weber's Law
    the principle that, to be percieved as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage
  345. Sensory Adaptation
    diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constat stimulation
  346. Psychoactive Drug
    a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
  347. Tolerance
    the dminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
  348. Withdrawal
    the discomfort and sitress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
  349. Physical Dependence
    a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
  350. Psychological Dependence
    a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
  351. Addiction
    compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences
  352. Depressants
    drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
  353. Barbiturates
    drugs that dpress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
  354. Opiates
    opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
  355. Stimulants
    drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
  356. Amphetamines
    drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
  357. Methamphetamine
    a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
  358. Ecstasy
    • a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen
    • produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
  359. Hallucinogens
    psychedelic ("mind manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
  360. LSD
    a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
  361. THC
    the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
  362. Higher-Order Conditioning
    • a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus
    • ex. an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone
  363. Generalization
    the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
  364. Discrimination
    in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
  365. Respondent Behavior
    behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
  366. Operant Behavior
    behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
  367. Law of Effect
    Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  368. Operant Chamber
    in operant conditioning research, a chamber (skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
  369. Cognitive Map
    • a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
    • ex. after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
  370. Latent Learning
    learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  371. Intrinsic Motivation
    a desire to performa behavior effectively for its own sake
  372. Extrinsic Motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior to recieve promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
  373. Attitude
    feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
  374. Central Route to Persuasion
    occurs when interested people focus on the arguements and respond with favorable thoughts
  375. Peripheral Route to Persuasion
    occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
  376. Informational Social Influence
    influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opnions about reality
  377. Socail Facilitation
    stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in presence of others
  378. Social Loafing
    the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
  379. Deindividuation
    the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
  380. Group Polarization
    the enhancement of a group's prevfailing inclinations through discussion within the group
  381. Groupthink
    the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
  382. Asch's Conformity
    when five other participants say line 3 is equal to the stardard line, what does the last person say? in discomfort of disagreeing with the responses of otehr group members because the answer is incorrect

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