Functional Group Properties.txt

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Functional Group Properties.txt
2011-12-10 21:12:34
Functional groups organic chemistry chem alkanes alkenes alkynes aldehydes ketones carboxylic acids esters ethers

The properties of all functional groups in Organic Chemistry 306
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  1. Aldehyde and Ketones
    -Aldehydes and ketones contain a polar carbonyl group that can participate in dipole-dipole interactions.

    -These interactions give them higher boiling points than ethers and alkanes of similar mass, but lower boiling points than alcohols of similar mass, since alcohols can hydrogen-bond.

    -Furthermore, water can hydrogen-bond with the carbonyl group in aldehydes and ketones, which gives them limited solubility depending on the number of carbon atoms.
  2. Alcohols and Ethers
    -An alcohol is an organic compound with a hydroxyl function group, -OH. Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, is an example.

    -An ether is an organic compound with an oxygen atom in the carbon chain. Dimethyl ether, CH3OCH3, is an example.

    -The physical properties of a compound, such as boiling point and water solubility, depend on the types of intermolecular forces of attraction, such as hydrogen bonding, that can occur among like molecules or with a solvent.
  3. List in order of priority, least to greatest:

    a. Ketone, Aldehyde, Amine, Alcohol, Carboxylic Acid

    b. Aldehyde, Amine, Ketone, Carboxylic Acid, Alcohol

    c. Amine, Alcohol, Ketone, Aldehyde, Carboxylic Acid

    d. Amine, Alcohol, Carboxylic Acid, Ketone, Aldehyde
    Low priority < < < < High priority

    c. Amine, Alcohol, Ketone, Aldehyde, Carboxylic Acid

    In general, increasing priority follows the increase in oxidation.