Science Final

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mysadiegirl94
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122541
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Science Final
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2011-12-10 18:17:19
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Environmental Science
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Environmental Science Final
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  1. The basic units of matter, the smallest units that maintain the chemical properties of an element, are called:
    atoms
    lipids
    compounds
    molecules
    atoms
  2. Because of their large size, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids are together called:
    solutions
    elements
    hydrocarbons
    macromolecules
    macromolecules
  3. Why is water often called "the universal solvent"?
    it can dissolve many other molecules
    water can turn into a solid
    water is a type of solution
    it solves most of hte world's environmental problems
    It can dissolve many other molecules
  4. Predator prey relationships are an example of a:
    system w/ no feedback
    positive feedback loop
    negative feedback loop
    destabilizing system
    negative feedback loop
  5. Which sphere of the earth is made of all the rock above and below Earth's surface?
    lithosphere
    geosphere
    hydrosphere
    atmosphere
    geosphere
  6. The lithosphere is carred on a softer, but still firm, layer of rock called the:
    lithosphere
    geosphere
    hydrosphere
    atmosphere
    asthenosphere
  7. Which sphere are humans a part of?
    geosphere
    hydrosphere
    biosphere
    atmosphere
    biosphere
  8. A change in state in which water returns to Earth's surface and changes from a vapor to a liquid is called:
    condensation
    transpiration
    evaporation
    recharge
    condensation
  9. Matter that organisms require for their life processes are called:
    legumes
    decomposers
    fertilizers
    nutrients
    nutrients
  10. Which products are created by the process of photosynthesis?
    the sun's light and energy
    oxygen and carbohydrates
    phosphorous and nitrogen
    carbon dioxide and water
    oxygen and carbohydrates
  11. A(n) compound is a chemical substance with a given set of properties that can't be broken down into substances w/ other properties.
    element
  12. Because water molecules are poler, they tend to repel one another.
    attract
  13. Sometimes, an output of a system is also an input for the same system.
    true
  14. Tectonic plates move apart from one another at convergent plate boundaries.
    divergent
  15. Producers are organisms, mainly animals, that must eat other organisms to obtain nutrients.
    consumers
  16. What is the thinnest layer of the Earth's geosphere?
    the crust
  17. What is Earth's outermost sphere?
    atmosphere
  18. Giraffes, lions, zebras, hyenas, and all the other living things of the Serengeti make up a(n):
    ecosystem
    population
    community
    biosphere
    community
  19. Every spring, many species of bird travel north to the Arctic to breed, and in the fall travel south again for the winter. This is an example of:
    immigration
    emigration
    migration
    population
    migration
  20. You're studying the vegetation communities of the Mongolian grasslands in an 1000-km2 area. What is your best strategy for estimating the number of individuals of different plant species growing throught the grasslands?
    direct observation
    sampling
    indirect observation
    simply counting
    sampling
  21. Which is hte highest population density of grasshoppers?
    35/10 sq meters
    40/20 sq meters
    1/1 sq meters
    50/30 sq meters
    35/10
  22. Youwill be conducting a study of the interations of vegetation, animals, mineral composition of the soil, and water levels in a saltmarsh. You are studying the:
    population
    biosphere
    community
    ecosystem
    ecosystem
  23. "All the living things and their physical environment w/in a given area" best defines
    community
    ecosystem
    biosphere
    population
    ecosystem
  24. A population of wolves is reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park. For the first decade, the wolf population grows exponentially. Then the population growth slows. The new pattern is:
    logistic growth
    limiting factors
    carrying capacity
    exponential growth
    logistic growth
  25. Where the wolves are reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park, the number of elk and other prey species w/in the park are:
    density independent factor
    example of biotic potential
    density dependent
    limiting factor
    limiting factor
  26. Wildlife managers reintroduce a species of antelope to a park in Africa from which it had been wiped out. The habitat is ideal, and in the first year, the population grows from 50 to 60. If the population experiences exponential growth, what will the approximate population be at the end of five years?
    75
    90
    120
    150
    120
  27. Pandas depend on bamboo. The amount of intact bamboo forest will help determine:
    biotic potential
    carrying capacity
    sex ratio
    limiting factor
    carrying capacity
  28. The community is the simplest level of organization that the ecologist studies.
    individual
  29. A herd of mule deer living on a certain mountain and separated from other herds of mule deer represents a species.
    population
  30. In a population in which most of the individuals are of pre-reproductive or reproductive age, the population is likely to increase quickly in the future.
    true
  31. At the end of an ice age, you would expect to see exponential growth of species as they colonize regions left uninhabited by glaciers.
    true
  32. A landslide causes part of a mountainside to fall away, leaving bare rock. In the years immediately following the landslide, the area will experience:
    primary succession
    secondary succession
    tertiary succession
    climax community
    primary
  33. If there are present ina new environment, a species is unlikely to become invasive.:
    predators, parasites, and competitors
    cane toads, kudzu, and zebra mussles
    exotic species
    symbiotic and commensalist species
    predators, parasites, and competitors
  34. A reintroduced pop of wolves in a nat'l park is 90% grey & 10% black, consistent w/ the wolf pop in other regions. After several generations in isolation, the nat'l park's wolf pop is 60% grey & 40% black. The pop has likely experienced:
    natural selection
    genetic drift
    mutations
    migration
    natural selection
  35. In Madagascar, several species of lemur eat bamboo, but each species specializes in 1 opart of the bamboo. This is an example of:
    speciation
    resource partitioning
    competition
    niche partitioning
    resource partitioning
  36. One lemur eats only bamboo shoots. Bamboo shoots contain a high level of cyanide, a toxic chemical. This lemur species has developed a tolerance for a certain amoutn of cyanide. What doyou think will happen over time?
    cyanide level in bamboo will increase
    cyanide level in bamboo will decrease
    cyanide level in bamboo will be same
    cyanide level in lemur will decrease
    cyanide level in bamboo will increase
  37. When energy is transferred b/t trophic levels, the amount of availabe energy lost is about:
    90%
    50%
    25%
    10%
    90%
  38. Humans are generally:
    carnivores
    herbivores
    omnivores
    detrivores
    omnivores
  39. Any being that uses the sun's energy to create sugars is a:
    primary producer
    secondary producer
    primary consumer
    secondary consumer
    primary producer
  40. An invasive species is a species that has been introduced to a new area & lacks limiting factors.
    true
  41. An organism that depends on another w/o killing it is a predator.
    parasite
  42. A nation where most of the people eat a primarily vegetarian diet will be able to support a lower pop than it would if the people ate a lot of meat.
    higher
  43. In a woodland, a rabbit eats grass, and a coyote eats the rabbit. The coyote is a secondary consumer.
    true
  44. A food web cascade occurs when one species has an indirect effect on species at a different level of the nergy pyramid.
    trophic cascade
  45. Animals gathering around a water hole in a drought prone area & establishing hierarchies of access to the water is an example of competition.
    true
  46. you have many species of bacteria living in your gut that help you w/ digestion. This relationship is best defined as commensalism.
    mutualism
  47. Day-to-day conditions in Earth's atmosphere, such as sunny and humid, describe:
    climate
    climatograph
    weather
    biome
    weather
  48. Which biome would have the highest net primary production?
    savanna
    boreal forest
    coral reefs
    desert
    savanna
  49. In aquatic ecosystems, net primary productivity is related to:
    whether the water is fresh o salt
    speed @ which water moves
    available sunlight & nutrients
    waves & tides
    availabe sunlight & nutrients
  50. What percentage of Earth's surface is covered in water?
    75%
    90%
    25%
    50%
    75%
  51. Which of the following describes the aphotic zone in an aquatic ecosystem?
    very bottom
    no sunlight penetrates & no photosynthesis
    shallow, near-shore zone
    uppermost layer where there's photosynthesis
    no sunlight penetrates & no photosynthesis
  52. Which zone of an aquatic ecosystem tends to have more life?
    aphotic
    photic
    benthic
    All have same
    photic
  53. Which ecosystems are considered standing freshwater ecosystems?
    lakes
    wetlands
    ponds
    all of the above
    all of the above
  54. what ocean zone begins at hte edg eof the continental shelf and then extends outward into deeper water?
    intertidal
    open ocean
    littoral
    neritic
    open ocean
  55. On a biome map, patches representing the same biome tend to occur @ similar longitudes.
    latitudes
  56. Cold & dry biomes have the highest net primary production.
    warm & wet
  57. Primary consumers convert solar o chemical energy into energy stored in the bonds of organic sugars.
    producers
  58. Water moves toward areas of lower salinity.
    higher
  59. Ecologists tend to divide the photic zone of lakes and ponds based on distance from the bottom.
    shore
  60. What event in the mid-1700s significantly changed human pop growth?
    Industrial Rev
    development of ag
    bubonic plague
    human settlement began
    IR
  61. What combo of factors will produce the highest rate of pop growth?
    high life expectancy and high infant deaths
    low life expectancy and low infant deaths
    low life expectancy and high infant deaths
    high life expectancy and low infant deaths
    high life expectancy and low infant deaths
  62. What is a pop's total fertility rate?
    number of births needed to keep pop stable
    av number of kids a male member of pop has/yr
    av number of kids a female member of pop has during lifetime
    total number of babies born in a pop each gen
    av number of kids a female member of pop has during lifetime
  63. Which factor helps increase total fertility rates?
    needing extra help on farms
    gov't programs supporting older adults
    more kids surviving childhood
    one-child policies
    needing extra help of farms
  64. The av number of yrs an individual is predicted to live:
    carrying capacity
    life expectancy
    growth rate
    demography
    life expectancy
  65. Number of organisms that an environment can support:
    life expectancy
    demography
    carrying capacity
    growth rate
    carrying capacity
  66. Which area would have the lowest pop density?
    seacost in Europe
    river in China
    tundra in Russia
    suburb in the US
    tundra in Russia
  67. The amount of people living ina given area is described as pop:
    morality
    expectancy
    rate
    density
    density
  68. What is the proper sequence of steps in the demographic transition?
    pre-industrial, transitional, industrial, post-industrial
  69. What happens during the transitional stage of the demographic transition?
    births begin to fall
    deaths begin to fall
    births increase
    deaths increase
    deaths begin to fall
  70. What can be inferred about an area that has an age structure diagram w/ a pyramid shape?
    pop is likely to decrease
    high proportion of older to younger
    high pop growth rate
    low pop growth rate
  71. What could be inferred about an area that has an age structure diagram w/ a "barrel" shape?
    low pop growth
    pop is likely to increase
    high proportion of young ot older
    high pop growth
    low pop growth
  72. Number of males compared to females in a pop:
    age structure
    sex ratio
    total fertility rate
    demography
    sex ratio
  73. The richest 1/5 of the world uses what percent of the resources?
    5
    20
    43
    86
    86
  74. Which stage of the demographic transition has the highest level of pop growth?
    industrial
    transitional
    pre-industrial
    post-industrial
    transitional
  75. A pop w/ many young people compared to older people will likely experience slow pop growth as the young peopl mature & have children.
    rapid
  76. The pop growth of developing nations as a whole surpasses pop growth in developed nations.
    true
  77. A pop w/ fewer younger people than older people will likely decrease in the future.
    true
  78. More people live in developing nations than live in developed nations.
    true
  79. Individuals from affluent socieites tend to have smaller ecological footprints than people from poor societies.
    larger

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