Hist 251.txt

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tmurphey72
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122544
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Hist 251.txt
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2011-12-10 18:47:14
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Latin America
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Conquest and Colonization of Latin America
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  1. Agustin de Iturbide
    Creole military commander in Mexico who first fights for the royalists but later switches sides after uniting with Vicente Guerrero under the Plan de Iguala. After independence he is crowned the first emperor of Mexico, but he is deposed and executed after less than a year.
  2. Antonio de Ulloa
    Explorer and scientist in Louisiana (where he was also governor) and Peru
  3. Asiento
    Royal monopoly
  4. Battle of Ayacucho
    Jose de Sucre leads a combined contingent of Argentine, Colombian, Peruvian, Chilean, and Venezuelan forces to defeat the royalist army in the Peruvian highlands. Seen as clinching independence for Spanish America, though Bolivia was yet to be liberated.
  5. Battle of Chacabuco
    fought during the Chilean War of Independence, occurred on February 12, 1817. The Army of the Andes of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata led by GeneralCaptain José de San Martín defeated the Spanish force led by Rafael Maroto. It was a defeat for the Captain Generalcy of Chile, the Spain-controlled government established after the division of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
  6. Battle of Monte de las Cruces
    Was one of the pivotal battles of the early Mexican War of Independence. It was fought between the insurgent troops of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Ignacio Allende against the royalist troops of General Torcuato Trujillo in the Sierra de las Cruces mountains between Mexico City and Toluca. The battle marks the furthest advance of the first rebel campaign, before Hidalgo decided to retreat towards Guadalajara, and not attack Mexico City, despite the fact that he won the battle. The battlefield is now located in the La Marquesa National Park, which is officially called the Miguel Hidalgo National Park in honor of the event.
  7. Bernardo O'Higgins
    Founding father of Chile. Led the rebel army, eventually teamed up with San Martin to finally win it.
  8. Charles III
    The most active and capable of the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, presided over many of the reforms.
  9. Charles IV
    He was overthrown by the Napoleonic Invaision
  10. Company of Pará and Grão Maranhão
    Joint-stock companies created to develop Brazil.
  11. Continental System
    Napoleon could not compete with British naval power, so he enforced a system of trade that was meant to keep Europe trading mainly within Europe, cutting much of England’s economic power and enriching France. Smuggling is rampant and the system fails.
  12. Cortes
  13. Dom João VI
  14. Dom José I
  15. Dom Pedro I
    First emperor of Brazil, declares independence. Eventually forced to abdicate and sent back to Portugal.
  16. Ferdinand VII
    “El Deseado” Prince of Spain forced into captivity by Napoleon. Many of Spanish America’s revolutions were done in his name. Juntas formed under the auspices of ruling for him while he was in captivity, though this was often a guise.
  17. Francisco de Miranda
    “the precursor” Radical Venezuelan who leads the first revolts for independence there. After traveling around Europe and being exposed to the radical Enlightenment there (especially during the French Revolution) he returned to Venezuela and stages the revolts. He was eventually captured and kept imprisoned by Spain until he died.
  18. Grito de Dolores
    September 16, 1810. Miguel Hidalgo reads a proclamation calling the indigenous people to rise up and throw off the yoke of the Spaniards. It had been intended to take place a few months later, but the conspiracy was discovered and had to be implemented early.
  19. Inconfidencia Mineira
    unsuccessful Brazilian independence movement, 1789.
  20. Intendant System
  21. "Jamaica Letter"
  22. Jesuit Reductions in Paraguay
  23. Jorge Juan
  24. José Antonio de Areche
  25. José Antonio Páez
    Caudillo in eastern Venezuela, mulatto. Fought under Bolivar, later made governor of Venezuela. His desire for greater control there was partly responsible for the breakup of Gran Colombia.
  26. José de Abascal
  27. José de Galvez
    Visitador and later viceroy of Mexico. Father of many of the Bourbon reforms there.
  28. José de San Martin
    Argentine patriot who led the liberation of Chile and Lima.
  29. José de Sucre
    Bolivar’s most trusted general. Leads the troops during the battle of Ayacucho and during the liberation of Upper Peru, for which he is made first president of Bolivia (whose capital is now named for him)
  30. José Fernando Abascal
  31. José Gervasio Artigas
    Uruguayan criminal-turned patriot. Considered Uruguay’s founding father
  32. José María Morelos y Pavón
    Mexican rebel leader. Priest, mulatto, commoner
  33. José Miguel Carrera
    Chilean patriot. After regional rivalries pit him against O’Higgins he fights on the royalist side.
  34. Joseph Bonaparte
    Napoleon’s brother who was placed on the Spanish throne
  35. Juan José Castelli
    Argentine patriot who led an unsuccessful attack on Upper Peru
  36. Juan Santos Atahualpa
  37. Manuel de Godoy
    hated minister of Charles IV; effectively ran Spain between
  38. Mariano Moreno
    Argentine patriot
  39. Marquis of Pombal
    Minister to Jose I of Portugal and effective ruler of Portugal 1750-1777. Implemented a series of policies which have come to be known as the Pombaline reforms, aimed at “economic nationalism”, or stimulating Portugal’s lagging industry. They also centralized authority in the capital and regulated commerce.
  40. Miguel Hidalgo
    Led the first revolt in the Mexican war for independence. Radical priest who read a lot of Enlightenment writers.
  41. Minas Gerais
    Interior province of Brazil where gold was discovered in the 18th century, prompting economic expansion and immigration.
  42. Navíos de registro
    independent ships licensed to sail alone and trade with different ports in the new world; the undoing of the fleet system.
  43. Noticias secretas
  44. Philip V
  45. Plan of Iguala
    The Plan de Iguala guaranteed three things: a European monarch be placed in control of Mexico, the Catholic church retained its privileged status, and that peninsulars and creoles be given equal rights.
  46. Proclamation of comercio libre
  47. Santiago Liniers
  48. Simón Bolívar
    “the liberator”. Venezuelan patriot who led multiple revolts until finally succeeding in liberating the country, at which point he went on to conquer Colombia, Equador, and the Peruvian highlands.
  49. Sub*
    delegate: they replaced the corrigedores when the intendency system was put into place in Spanish America.
  50. Three Guarantees
    The Plan de Iguala guaranteed three things: a European monarch be placed in control of Mexico, the Catholic church retained its privileged status, and that peninsulars and creoles be given equal rights.
  51. Tiradentes
    Brazilian patriot who led the inconfidencia mineira
  52. Tomas Catari
    Indigenous leader in Upper Peru whose legal conflict sparked a massive Indian uprising.
  53. Treaty of Madrid (1750)
  54. Treaty of Methuen
    Provided favorable terms of exchange for Portuguese wine in Britain and British manufactures in Portugal. This hobbled Portugal’s fledgling industry and strengthened their ties to Britain.
  55. Treaty of Utrecht
    Indigenous leader who creates a rebellion in Southern Peru over the mita. Peru sees this as the first stirrings of independence. It degenerated into race war by the end, and this made Peruvian creoles less willing to support later revolts for independence.
  56. Tupac Amaru II
  57. Tupac Catari
    Indigenous leader who took the names of Tupac Amaru and Tomas Catari. Led another revolt in the Peruvian highlands.
  58. Vicente Guerrero
    Mexican mulatto patriot. Formed the plan of Iguala. Later elected president of Mexico, after which he was assasinated.
  59. Viceroyalty of La Plata
    New viceroyalty created out of the viceroyalty of Peru in 1776. Headquartered in Buenos Aires and comprised of modern day Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia.
  60. Viceroyalty of New Granada
    Viceroyalty of New Granada - The modern day countries of Venezuela, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador were made into a separate viceroyalty first in 1717___ and then in 1736_____.
  61. War of Jenkins' Ear
  62. War of Spanish Succession
    When Charles II died without leaving any clear heir different factions in Europe jockeyed for power in Spain by placing their friends or relatives on the throne. In the end it was Philip of Anjou, _grandson_____ of Louis XIV of France, who emerged victorious after the bloody struggle.

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