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McGregor's Theory X
- A type of managament that seems to focus on results
- -Most People dislike work and want to avoid it.
-People require close direction
-People want to avoid responsibility and have little ambition
McGregor's Theory Y
- Seems to be a modern way of managment- people like to work.
- -Work is a natural activity
- -People can be self directed if they are committed to the objective
- -Most employees accept and seek responsibility
- -Employees have imagination, ingenuity, and creativity.
FIve source of Organizational Behavior Research Insights
- Laboratory study-
- Manipulation and measurement of variables in contrived situation.
- Field study-
- Exaination of varialbes in real-life settings
- Sample survey-
- Questionnaire responses from a sample of people
- Case Studies
- In-depth analysis of single individual, group, or organization.
- Pools the results of many studies through statistical procedure.
The Cognitive Miser
-Although the human brain is an amazing piece of equipment, it is finite in its processing capacity.
-Since the world is both infinetly large and infinitely complex, our brain is forced to take shortcuts and ignore some input in favor of other input.
-This leads to errors.
Communication and it's meaning.
Definition: The transference and the understanding of meaning.
- Communication Functions-
- 1. Provide information needed to make decisions.
- 2. Control behavior.
- 3.Foster motivation for what is to be done.
- 4. Provide a release for emotional expression.
Communication Process Model
- The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning. Useful for diagnosing problems.
Information Richness of Communication Channels
Personal and Informational Barriers
- Selective Perception (often resulting in decoding failures).
- People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, focus, or attitudes.
- Information Overload (a common form of noise).
- A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual's processing capacity.
- Mindlessness (often resulting in decoding errors).
- Automaticity of behaviours and a lack of active conscious involvement.
Status-Driven Barriers(often resulting in encoding failures).
- A sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver.
- Men Talk to
- 1.Emphasize status, power, and independence.
- 2.Complain that women have too high a need to communicate.
- 3.Offer solutions.
- 4.To boast about their accomplishments.
Gender Barriers- Women
- 1-Establish connection and intimacy.
- 2-Criticize men for not listening.
- 3-Speak of problems to promote closeness.
- 4-Express regret and restore balance to a conversation.
- 1. Kinesics
- - Movement of the head, arms, hands, legs, feet, postural shifts, some gestures, eye movement, and facial expressions.
Kinesics- the different types
- Emblems- nonverbal acts that have direct verbal translation and can substitute for words, the meaning of which is well understood by a particular group, class or culture e.g., waving a hand in gretting (learned language skills, culture specific)
- Illustrators- Movements that are tied directly to speech and serve to visualize what is verbalised, e.g., pointing to where you want someone to look.
- Affect displays- facial expressions of emotions. The basic emotions of happiness, anger, surprise, fear, disgust, sadness and interest are similar across a wide variety of cultures.
Non verbal Communicatino- Paralanguage
content free vocalizations and patterns associated with speeck- pitch, volume, frequency, stuttering, filled pauses e.g., 'ah', silent pauses, interruptions, speech rate, number of words spoken.
Nonverbal Communication- Physical contact, Proxemics, Objects or adornments
- 1.Physical contact- touching
- 2.Proxemics- interpersonal and psychological space management.
- 3. Objects or adornments- perfume, clothes, jewellery, wigs
Self-Esteem one's overall self-evaluation
a. I fell I am a person of worth, the equal of other people
b. I feel I do not have much to be proud of.
Locus of control and the self-serving
External Locus of Control- One's life outcomes attributes to environmental factors such as luck or fate.
Internal Locus of Control- belief that one controls events and consequences in one's life.
A person's belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a task.
A lack of efficacy can lead people to make "sucker's choices" in communication and can force people towar avoiding communication from a sense of hopelessness.`