A type of managament that seems to focus on results
-Most People dislike work and want to avoid it.
-People require close direction
-People want to avoid responsibility and have little ambition
McGregor's Theory Y
Seems to be a modern way of managment- people like to work.
-Work is a natural activity
-People can be self directed if they are committed to the objective
-Most employees accept and seek responsibility
-Employees have imagination, ingenuity, and creativity.
FIve source of Organizational Behavior Research Insights
Manipulation and measurement of variables in contrived situation.
Exaination of varialbes in real-life settings
Questionnaire responses from a sample of people
In-depth analysis of single individual, group, or organization.
Pools the results of many studies through statistical procedure.
The Cognitive Miser
-Although the human brain is an amazing piece of equipment, it is finite in its processing capacity.
-Since the world is both infinetly large and infinitely complex, our brain is forced to take shortcuts and ignore some input in favor of other input.
-This leads to errors.
Communication and it's meaning.
Definition: The transference and the understanding of meaning.
1. Provide information needed to make decisions.
2. Control behavior.
3.Foster motivation for what is to be done.
4. Provide a release for emotional expression.
Communication Process Model
The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning. Useful for diagnosing problems.
Information Richness of Communication Channels
Personal and Informational Barriers
Selective Perception (often resulting in decoding failures).
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, focus, or attitudes.
Information Overload (a common form of noise).
A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual's processing capacity.
Mindlessness (often resulting in decoding errors).
Automaticity of behaviours and a lack of active conscious involvement.
Status-Driven Barriers(often resulting in encoding failures).
A sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver.
Men Talk to
1.Emphasize status, power, and independence.
2.Complain that women have too high a need to communicate.
4.To boast about their accomplishments.
Gender Barriers- Women
1-Establish connection and intimacy.
2-Criticize men for not listening.
3-Speak of problems to promote closeness.
4-Express regret and restore balance to a conversation.
- Movement of the head, arms, hands, legs, feet, postural shifts, some gestures, eye movement, and facial expressions.
Kinesics- the different types
Emblems- nonverbal acts that have direct verbal translation and can substitute for words, the meaning of which is well understood by a particular group, class or culture e.g., waving a hand in gretting (learned language skills, culture specific)
Illustrators- Movements that are tied directly to speech and serve to visualize what is verbalised, e.g., pointing to where you want someone to look.
Affect displays- facial expressions of emotions. The basic emotions of happiness, anger, surprise, fear, disgust, sadness and interest are similar across a wide variety of cultures.
Non verbal Communicatino- Paralanguage
content free vocalizations and patterns associated with speeck- pitch, volume, frequency, stuttering, filled pauses e.g., 'ah', silent pauses, interruptions, speech rate, number of words spoken.
Nonverbal Communication- Physical contact, Proxemics, Objects or adornments
1.Physical contact- touching
2.Proxemics- interpersonal and psychological space management.
3. Objects or adornments- perfume, clothes, jewellery, wigs
Self-Esteem one's overall self-evaluation
a. I fell I am a person of worth, the equal of other people
b. I feel I do not have much to be proud of.
Locus of control and the self-serving
External Locus of Control- One's life outcomes attributes to environmental factors such as luck or fate.
Internal Locus of Control- belief that one controls events and consequences in one's life.
A person's belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a task.
A lack of efficacy can lead people to make "sucker's choices" in communication and can force people towar avoiding communication from a sense of hopelessness.`