Triangles of the Neck

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Triangles of the Neck
2011-12-10 19:23:15
Triangles neck

Triangles of the Neck
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  1. Posterior Triangle Borders
    • Anterior: post border of SCM
    • Postrerior: ant border of trapezius
    • Inferior: middle 1/3 of the clavicle
    • Apex: SCM & trapezius meet
    • Roof: general investing layer of fascia
    • Floor: splenius capitis, levator scapulae, middle scalene
  2. Anterior Triangle Borders
    • Anterior: median line of neck
    • Posterior: ant border of SCM
    • Superior: inf border of mandible
    • Apex: jugular notch in manubrium
    • Floor: pharynx, larynx & thyroid
    • Roof: subcutaneous tissue w/platysma
  3. Anterior Triangle subtriangles?
    • Submental (unpaired)
    • Submandibular, carotid & muscular (paired)
  4. Posterior triangle sub triangles?
    occipital & supraclavicular triangles
  5. Posterior Triangle contents?
    • Nerves: CN XI, cervical plexus, brachial plexus roots & trunks
    • Arteries: subclavian pt 3, transverse cervical, suprascapular, part of occipital
    • Veins: accompany arteries except EJV @ root
  6. Tubercular infection of deep cervical LN...
    result in liquefaction & destruction of nodes
  7. first pus limited by investing layer of fascia
    later may rupture --> collar stud abscess
  8. Retropharyngeal Space Infection
    • points anteriorly towards pharynx
    • if not treated may rupture in pharynx
  9. Congenital torticollis
    • excessive stretching during difficult labor results in SCM:
    • hemorrhage
    • fibrosis
    • shortening of muscle
  10. Scalenus anterior syndrome/Thoracic outlet Syndrome
    • subclavian a. & brachial plexus pass thru narrow muscular-bony triangle
    • sudden spasm of scalenus ant m. --> subclaivan a. & lower trunk of brachial plexus compressed
    • causes ischemic muscle pain in arm, forearm, hand & wasting of small muscles of hand
    • sensory deficits on medial side of forearm & hand
  11. Scalene LN Biopsy
    nodes surrounded by pleura & phrenic n. & will cause pneumothorax & diaphragm paralysis
  12. Anterior Triangle: Submandibular triangle contents
    • submandibular gland duct
    • submandibular LN
    • Nerves: CN XII, IX, lingual & nerve to mylohyoid
    • Muscles: mylohyoid, hyoglossus & middle constrictor of pharynx
    • Arteries: lingual, facial, submental
    • Veins: accompany a.
  13. Anterior Triangle: Carotid Triangle contents
    • Arteries: common carotid bifurcation, carotid sinus & bodies
    • Nerves: CN XII, ansa cervicalis, sup laryngeal & branches
    • Veins: IJV & tributaries
    • Muscles: Thyrohyoid & Inf. constrictor of pharynx
  14. Anterior Triangle: Muscular Triangle
    contains infrahyoid m., thyroid gland & parathyroid glands
  15. Internal Jugular Vein Tributaries
    • facial v.
    • lingual v.
    • sup, middle & inf thyroid v.
  16. Carotid body vs. Carotid sinus
    • carotid body - chemoreceptor
    • carotid sinus - mechanoreceptor
    • CN IX carries sensory info from the carotid sinus & body