c.16 - Schizophrenia & MAD.txt

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  1. The ________ hypothesis of depression states that it is caused by decreased activity of serotonin and norepinephrine.
  2. No emotional response
    flat affect
  3. Repeated depressive and manic episodes are related to increased size of lateral ____;this implies a loss of brain tissue.
  4. There is a 60% _____________ rate for MZ twins for major depressive disorder
  5. Schizophrenics may have deficits in the _____________, which is important for cognitive control and emotion.
    cingulate cortex
  6. __________ usually help the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but not the negative symptoms.
  7. _____________ individuals have abnormalities in the PFC, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum, temporal lobes and amygdala.
  8. _____________ + psychotherapy is more effective at treating depression than either one approach alone
  9. Rapidly alleviates depression because it induces the release of monoamines--however, it is used when pharmacological treatments do not work.
  10. He was one of the first to attribute mental disorders to underlying biology; he described schizophrenia in modern terms (i.e. paranoia, delusions, inappropriate affect).
  11. Children of older fathers have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia-- one theory attributes this to mutations of __________ that have resulted from DNA copying errors taking place during cell division.
  12. Appear to be a major cause in depression that first occurs later in life.. these cerebal events would go unoticed
    silent cerebral infarctions
  13. In this condition, people who have high levels of glucocorticoids-like cortisol- are prone to depression.
    Cushing's syndrome
  14. The ________ symptoms of schizophrenia involve the presence of maladaptive thoughts or behaviors
  15. Zeitgebers might play a role in this condition where one would sleep more, crave carbohydrates, gain weight and feel depressed.
    SAD ( Seasonal affective disorder)
  16. in schizophrenics, the most common hallucinations are:
  17. indicators of both genetic issues and psychopathological symptoms
    neurological soft signs
  18. concordance of schizophrenia in ___________ twins is higher than the concordance in dichorionic twins
  19. excessive elation or agitation
  20. __________ for several hours per day has been shown to work as a treatment for season affect disorder
    photo therapy
  21. about 16.2 Americans had _________ at some time in their lives
    MAD (major affective disorder)
  22. terrible side effects of antipsychotics
    tardive dyskinesia
  23. a seasonality effect of schizophrenic births lead to the theory that mothers of schizophrenics, when pregnant, had a slow ________________
  24. a common treatment for bipolar disorder--- but its effective dosage is near toxic
  25. One theory of schizophrenia states that too much _______ occurs, resulting in too few neurons and brain matter.
    synaptic pruning
  26. created the term 'schizophrenia'
  27. __________ are found in 50% of schizophrenic patients
  28. Major depressive disorder has a strong link to _____________
  29. The ________ symptoms of schizophrenia involve the diminution or absense of normal behavor
  30. Strong localized magnetic field induces current in the PFC; this can decrease depressive symptoms. Still in its early stages
    TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation)
  31. disposition available + stressor catalyst = schizophrenia:
    diathesis stress model
  32. simian crease, hair whirl, eye skinfolds, low seated ears are examples of ____
    neurological soft signs
  33. Glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia:
    PCP = glutamate antagonist; (PCP produces schizo Sx); SO increasing glutamate might cure schizophrenia Sx?
    No. excess glutamate = seizures etc.
  34. PET scans show 1) increased bloodflow to the amygdala (sadness and fear) and 2) decreased bloodflow to the ACC (cognitive control & attention). This is common for __________
  35. "strokes"; do not respond to medication for depression because of these
    silent cerebral infarctions
  36. Lowered levels of this Neurotransmitter were found in suicides. reinforces the monoamine hypothesis
  37. Monoamine hypothesis says depression is caused by lowered _______________ in the brain
    serotonin and norepinephrine
  38. MAOIs treat ____
    depression (monoamine oxidase inhibitors = monamine hypothesis)
  39. milder depression with no normal moods for more than 2 months
    dysthymic disorder
  40. HPA (hypothalamic pituitary adrenal) axis = hormone response. This produces _________ linked with depression
    adrenaline-based chemicals
  41. ______Syndrome = increased coritsol levels. classic physical signs such as the buffalo hump
  42. depression altered with mania
    bipolar disorder
  43. Zeitgebers: winter day depression =
    Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD
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c.16 - Schizophrenia & MAD.txt
Test 4 - schizo & Major affective disorder
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