ANTH 1140 Exam 3 Study Guide

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ANTH 1140 Exam 3 Study Guide
2011-12-13 03:24:53
ANTH 1140 Exam Three Review Sheet

ANTH 1140 Exam 3 Review Sheet Questions
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  1. Although the majority of Classic Maya sites were abandoned, Seibal flourished after the collapse of Dos Pilas. List 4 of new artistic traditions and pottery styles that appeared at Seibal after A.D. 830:
    • Plumbate
    • No long count date, square glyph
    • Bones in nose
    • Speech scroll
    • Snakes = snakes
  2. Name three sites that flourished along the Atlantic Coast after the collapse of the Classic Period:
    • Tulum
    • Cozumel
    • Lamanai (Belize)
    • Xunantunich (Belize)
  3. People living in the Northern Maya Lowlands rely on naturally forming wells known as ________________ for water because __________________________.
    • Cenotes
    • No rivers above ground
  4. The majority of farmers in the N. Maya Lowlands employ ____________________.
    Swidden agriculture (a.k.a. slash & burn)
  5. An important dietary mineral traded from the N. Maya Lowlands is __________. Two important non-comestible plants grown in this region are:
    • Salt
    • Cotton
    • Henequin
  6. What are the dates for the Post-Classic Period
    900 – 1519 AD
  7. The Books of Chilam Bahlam written after the Spanish conquest, refer to the arrival of people who “speak our language brokenly” or the _____________. Name the three culture groups who are the most likely to have been these “strangers.”
    • Itza
    • Putuun/Chantal from Veracruz
    • Cholan Maya from Southern Maya Lowlands
    • Toltec from Tula
  8. El Castillo at Chichen Itzá functions as a cosmogram or model of the symbolic Maya world for the following reasons
    • Radial Pyramid = quincunx
    • 9 tiers = 9 lords of the Underworld
    • 260 niches = sacred calendar
    • 365 stairs = solar calendar
    • Equinoxes (March/Sep 21st) = Feathered Serpent undulates down the side of the stairs
  9. Name the archaeologist from the University of Colorado who was in charge of the excavation of the Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itzá:
    Earl Morris
  10. The recovery of mirrors, likely worn as a backrack and composed of obsidian and ______________ , reveals long-distance trade between Chichen Itzá and people living in __________________.
    • turquoise
    • New Mexico
  11. Artifacts made of what material were imported from Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama?
  12. Based on archaeological and epigraphic evidence, how does rulership at Chichen Itzá differ from that during the Classic Period?
    • Classic Period = dynastic kingship
    • Chichen Itzá = mutepal (communal/consensus leadership)
  13. The Ballcourt at Chichen Itzá is unusual for a number of reasons, including:
    • it is the LARGEST ballcourt ever excavated
    • it has circular hoops set high into the walls of the court
    • the carved murals along the sides of the court suggest that teams, rather than individuals, played the game
    • it has terrific acoustics that allow sounds to carry from one side of the court to the other
    • it is NOT the only ballcourt at Chichen Itzá (~50)
  14. Archaeologist Dennis Puleston was struck by lightning at
    El Castillo
  15. Name three Post-Classic artifacts recovered from the Great Cenote at Chichen Itzá:
    • Wooden idols (made there)
    • Cotton Fabric (made there)
    • Golden goggles (from Central America)
    • Plumbate pottery (from the highlands of Guatemala & Mexico)
  16. What Post-Classic artifacts recovered from the Great Cenote indicate long distance trade?
    • Golden goggles (from Central America)
    • Plumbate pottery (from the highlands of Guatemala & Mexico)
  17. What evidence suggests that the sacrificed individuals thrown into the Great Cenote were virgins?
    They were under 8 years old
  18. What is Puuk-style architecture? Name two sites associated with this style architecture:
    • stone mosaic that forms textile patterns
    • Chichen Itza
    • Uxmal
  19. What artifacts, iconographic images and architectural styles are shared by Chichen Itzá, Yucatan, and Tula, Hidalgo?
    • Tzompantli (skull rack)
    • Heart excision (then feed to chacmool)
    • Warriors carrying atlatls
    • Atlantean figures
    • Round Temples
    • Temple of the warriors (excavated by Earl Morris) with a colonnade
    • Images of Quetzalcoatl (Feathered Serpent)
    • Giant thrones
  20. According to Toltec myth, there once was a ruler who was forced to abandon Tula and traveled to Chichen Itzá whose name was ___________________. He promised to return to take control of his kingdom at Tula on the date ___________________.
    • Quetzalcoatl (his kingdom was occupied by the Toltecs)
    • 1 Reed
    • NOTE: H. Cortez arrived in Veracruz on this date
  21. The Books of Chilam Balam record that after Chichen Itza was abandoned in AD 1228, the capital of the Yucatan Peninsula moved to ____________.
  22. What similar, although smaller, architecture was constructed at this new capital?
    • Castillo
    • Caracol (temple of Quetzalcoatl)
    • Temple of Warriors with Collonade
  23. Where did the Itza go after they left this second site?
    Toyasol (Southern Maya Lowlands)
  24. As noted in the textbook, the “League of Mayapan” involved a system of rotating rulership every _____ years between the cities of
    • 20
    • Cozumel
    • Mayapan
    • Tulum
    • Santa Rita
  25. Who are the two people who provided aid to H. Cortez & what skills did they possess?
    • G. de Aguilar – speaks Spanish and Yukatek Maya
    • Malinche/Dona Marina – speaks Yukatek Maya and Aztec (Nahwatl)
  26. Why is Diego de Landa both loved and hated by modern ethnographers of the Maya?
    • Positive: wrote the first ethnography
    • Negative: burned books
  27. What effect did the Spanish have on the peoples of Mesoamerica before the arrival of Hernando Cortez in AD 1519?
    • Disease (small pox, measles, chicken pox, mumps)
    • AFTER: STDs and plague
  28. How did the hacienda system differ from the encomienda system?
    • Encomienda: Came first; award of land and all appurtenances (including Maya and all other animals/plants). It is NOT slavery (can’t buy and sell appurtenances) but the people can't leave??
    • Hacienda System: (1820) Everyone is “free” and must be paid for their labor. The owners begin printing their own scrip (only accepted at hacienda)
  29. Define what is meant by a revitalization movement?
    • Revitalization movement is based on religious prophecy with the following goals:
    • Remove oppressors
    • Return to traditional values & belief
    • Keep the stuff (horses, guns, tools)
  30. What was the proximate cause of the Revitalization Movement in Chan Santa Cruz, Quintana Roo? When did it occur?
    • 1847-1850
    • Talking cross
  31. What was the proximate cause of the Revitalization Movement in Chamula, Chiapas? When did it occur?
    • 1867-1871
    • Three talking rocks fall from the sky
  32. What is the definition of emic?
    view of the cultural participant
  33. What is the definition of etic?
    view of the outsider
  34. What is meaning of the term Ladino?
    Speaks Spanish, dresses in Western clothes, identifies dominant culture (not a traditional Maya)
  35. Characteristics of a Shaman:
    • Individual/sole practitioner
    • Talks to supernaturals (ancestors, animal companions)
    • Apprenticeship (learns to be a shaman)
    • Receives money for doing magic
  36. Characteristics of a Cofradia:
    • Group – husband and wife team
    • Focused on a Catholic Saint
    • Hierarchy (learn from other members of Cofradia)
    • Pay money for care of Cofradia, widows, orphans, feasts
  37. As shown in the film, what happens on November 1 in Todos Santos Cuchumatán?
    • Communal feasting
    • Corrida (drunken horse race)
    • Go to the cemetery
    • Dance of the Conquest
  38. From an emic perspective, why do young men participate in the corrida?
    • fulfill religious promise
    • enhance social prestige
  39. What social roles do rites of resistance like the Dance of the Conquest provide?
    • Make fun of dominant culture
    • show what is proper behavior
  40. Based on the book and film, give two reasons why people leave their villages to work on the coast or on the fincas?
    • Money (participate in cash economy)
    • feeling of importance
  41. What was the stated reason that the CIA, US military and American government began providing aid and training to Guatemala in 1954?
  42. Name the military dictator who seized control of Guatemala in 1982
    E. Rios Montt
  43. Who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 for her autobiography detailing the torture, illegal detention & state sponsored genocide of the Maya?
    Rigoberta Menchu
  44. What were two of the causes for the Guatemalan Civil War from the perspective of the Ladinos?
    • They saw the Maya as communists
    • Defense against those who would overthrow the government
  45. What are three of the causes of the Civil War from the perspective of the Maya or poor of Guatemala?
    • Greater/fair wages
    • Legal rights
    • Education
    • Title to their land
  46. What was the government-stated goal of the Civil Defense Patrol?
    defend against disruptive influences
  47. What was the stated reason the Zapatistas took control of San Cristobal, Chiapas, on January 1, 1994?
    North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  48. What economic benefit did the US derive from NAFTA?
    No tariffs
  49. What did the US require regarding the ejido lands of Mexico?
  50. From whom did the Zapatistas derive their name?
    E. Zapata (1910)
  51. Who was the spokesman for the Zapatistas?
    • Subcommandante Marcos
    • "Sub" because the Maya were the real commanders
  52. What was the effect of the Guatemalan civil war on Mexico?
    Immigration of the Maya
  53. In A Mayan Life, under the direction of Lwin, the people of Jolomk'u eventually band together as a community to determine what their problems were and to find ways of solving them. Name three of the problems that were identified by the community:
    • poverty
    • hunger
    • Maya traditions were slowly being oppressed and deserted