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2011-12-11 23:00:33
nervous system

A and P
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  1. The part of the nervous system consisting of brain and spinal cord:
    Central Nervous System
  2. The motor subdivision of the peripheral nervous system controlling body activities automatically:
    Autonomic Nervous System
  3. Consists of nerves and groups of nerve cell bodies:
    Peripheral Nervous System
  4. Sensory nerve cell bodies outside the CNS:
  5. Type of neuron transmitting impulses toward the CNS:______
    Type of neuron transmitting impulses away from the CNS:______
    • Afferent
    • Efferent
  6. Excitable cells conducting impulses:
  7. Which neurons are sensory? _______ motor? _______
    • Afferent
    • Efferent
  8. The two main types of cells in the nervous system:
    • Neurons
    • Neuraglia
  9. Cells that support the function of neurons: ______ Can they conduct impulses?
    • Neuroglia
    • No
  10. A neuron that conducts impulses from afferent to efferent neuron inside the CNS:
    interneurons, centeral neurons, or assosciation neurons
  11. Type of neuroglial cell which is phagocytic:
  12. Neuroglial cells found only in the PNS and are the functional equivalent of oligodendrocytes:
    Shwann cells
  13. Produce the fatty myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the CNS:
  14. The largest and most numerous type of neuroglia:
  15. Neuroglial cells that line fluid-filled cavities in the braina and spinal cord:
    Ependymal cells
  16. How do the white fibers differ from gray fibers?
    They have myelin
  17. If myelin is presen, what parts of the neuron will have it?
    Axon and dendrites
  18. One or more extensions from the cell body:
  19. The part of the neuron containing the nucleus:
    Cell body
  20. A process conduction impulses toward the cell body:
    Dendrite, afferent process
  21. A process conducting impulses away from the cell body :
    axon, efferent process
  22. What is the function of myelin?
    protection and insulation, increase rate or nerve impulse, transmission
  23. The exposed part of the Schwann cell membrane:
  24. What is the importance of this structure?
  25. Gaps between Schwann cells where there is no myelin:
    Nodes of Ranvier
  26. What is saltatory conduction?
    nerve impulses jumping from node to node
  27. Another term for an action potential is _______.
    nerve impulse
  28. An electrical fluctuation travellin along the surface of a neuron plasma membrane:
    action potential or nerve impulse
  29. How is the all or none principle related to the action potential?
    A neuron conducts to fullest extent or not at all
  30. Where are the charges located on a resting membrane? _____ What word describes a resting membrane? _____
    • (+) outside (-) inside
    • Polarized
  31. What is the effect of a nerve impulse on a resting membrane?
    changes permeability for potassium or sodium ions
  32. What term dexcribes a membrane with its negative charges outside and positive charges inside?
  33. A reversal of the charges that puts positive charges outside the membrane and negative charges inside is:
  34. Give the location for sodium ions in a resting membrane?
    The location for potassium ions in a restingmembrane:
    • outside
    • inside
  35. What keeps the sodium ions outside?
    Sodium and potassium pump
  36. What is the electrical potential of a restin membrane?
    -70 mV
  37. What is the threshold potential?
    -59 mV
  38. What does +30 mV tell you about the charges?
    potassium chanels open and potassium goes in
  39. How long in terms of milliseconds, are the sodium channels open?
  40. What happens to the potassium channels at an electrical potential of +30 mV?
  41. Which channels respond faster--sodium or potassium?
  42. What happens if the potassium channels remain open for too long?
    to many potassium ions rush out result in hyperpolarization
  43. What is the function of the sodium-potassium pump?
    restores the ion channels to the resting state
  44. Fine strands extending through the cytoplasm of each neuron:
  45. The minimal level of stimulation required to cause a muscle fiber to contract:
  46. If the stimulus is too weak to bring about a contraction of a muscle, we say it is ________.
  47. The movement of the membrane potential toward zero:
  48. Membrane potential maintained by a nonconducting neuron's plasma:
    resting potential
  49. What is the resting potential in millivolts?
  50. The sign of voltage indicates the ______ charge of the polarized membrane.
  51. A membrane having a negative pole and a positive pole:
  52. Membrane potential of an active neuron:
    Action Potential
  53. A neurotransmitter synthesized in the neuron:
  54. The enzyme in the postsynaptic membrane which rapidly inactivates Acetylcholine:
  55. The three membranes found between the brain an skull:
  56. The outer membrane: _____ middle membrane: _____ inner membrane: _____
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid
    • Pia mater
  57. Space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of the next:
  58. What are the two protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord:
    • Brain: cranium and meninges
    • Spinal cord: vetebral column and meninges
  59. Name some causes for meningitis:
    Brain tumors, bacteria, fungi, and virus
  60. A cushion of fluid around and within the brain and spinal cord:
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  61. What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?
    provides a shock absorber, and monitors for change of internal environment
  62. Large fluid-filled spaces within the brain:_____ How many? _____
    Ventricles, 4
  63. Give the exact location for the spinal cord:
    Within the spinal cavity, extends from the foramen magnum to L2, 18" from foramen magnum to L2`
  64. What are the two bulges of the spinal cord?
    Cervical and Lumbar
  65. Which fissure is deeper-- anterior or posterior?
  66. What type of information is carried by the dorsal root?
    SENSORY information
  67. What type of information is carried by the ventral root?
    MOTOR information
  68. Where are the cell bodies of the dorsal root?
    What are the cell bodies of the venteral root?
    • In ganglia outside CNS
    • Inside CNS
  69. The inside part of the spinal cord resembling the letter H:
    Gray matter
  70. What kind of cell bodies are located in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
    Interneurons and Motor
  71. What are the divisions of the gray matter?
    Anterior, Posterior, and Lateral horns of gray matter
  72. What are the divisions of the white matter?
    Anterior, Posterior, Lateral white columns
  73. What part of the neuron will be found in the white matter?
  74. Where are tracts located within the CNS?
    White matter
  75. List two functions of the spinal cord:
    • 1. Provides a two way conduction route to and from the brain
    • 2. Serves as a reflex center for all spinal reflexes
  76. The horse's tail appearance at the lower end of the spinal cord with its attached nerve roots:
    Cauda equina
  77. How many pairs of spinal nerves?
    How many cranial nerves?
    • 31 pairs
    • 12
  78. How are the spinal nerves numbered?
    How are cranial nerves numbered?
    • According to the level of the vertebral column at which they emerge from the spinal cavity.
    • Roman numerals
  79. For each of the following divisions, give the correct number of pairs
    _____sacral _____thoracic _____cervical _____coccygeal _____lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 12 thoracic
    • 8 cervical
    • 1 coccygeal
    • 5 lumbar
  80. A subdivision of the cervical plexus which innervates the lower shoulder and all of the arm:
    Brachial Plexus
  81. Innercates the lower abdoment, buttocks, and anterior thigh:
    T12 and L1-L4
  82. Innervates the lower trunk adn posterior surface of the thigh and leg:
    L4 and L5, S1-S4
  83. Largest nerve of the body:
  84. Intercostal nerves are found in this division:
  85. What is a dermatome?
    Each skin surface area supplied by a single spinal nerve
  86. A receptor activated by intense stimuli of any type resulting in tissue damage:
  87. Outer region of the brain: _____ type of matter: ______
    • Cortex
    • Gray
  88. Largest and most superior part of the brain:
  89. Number of heispheres in the cerebrum:
  90. Folds on the cerebrum and cerebellum:
    gyri (convolutions)
  91. Maintains muscle tone and coordination:
  92. The part of the brainstem continous with the spinal cord:
    Medulla oblongata
  93. Name the four lobes of the cerebrum:
    frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
  94. The connecting link between the two hemisphere of the cerebrum:
    corpus callosum
  95. The connecting link between the two hemispheres of the cerebellum:
  96. Small region of the brain located between the thalamus and the pons:
  97. Neuroendoctine and autonomic control center of the brain:
  98. Controls consciousness, memory, emotions, and voluntary movement:
  99. Mass of gray matter involved in the relay of sensory information, emotion, arousal, and complex reflexes:
  100. The part of the brainstem between the midbrain and the medulla:
  101. Part of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord:
    Medulla Oblongota