Card Set Information
BIOL 1215-16 Animal Nutrition
Three Categories of Animal Nutrition:
Herbivores - Eat mainly autotrophs.
Carnivores - Eat other animals.
Omnivores - Consume animals and plants or algal.
Stages of Food Processing:
Ingestion > Digestion
In chemical digestion,
splits bonds in molecules.
Absorption is uptake of nutrients.
Elimination is the passage of undigested material out.
Types of Ingestion:
Many aquatic animals.
Sift through particles in water.
Animals that live in or on their food source.
Suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host.
Eat relatively large pieces of food.
Most animals process food in specialized compartments.
Reduces risk of digesting its own cells and tissues.
Food particles engulfed by
and digested in
Contains hydrolytic enzymes involved in intracellular digestion.
Breakdown of food particles outside of cells.
Occurs in compartments continuous with outside of body.
Simple body plans have gastrovascular cavity that functions in digestion and Complex animals have a digestive tube with a mouth and anus. (
Digestive Tube/Alimentary Canal
Alimentary Canal Regions:
Where food is physically broken up.
Food may swallowed whole or fragmented/liquified.
Storage sac for food.
Physically (and enzymatically) breaks down food.
Some have crops that hold food and muscular gizzards that grind food.
A long, thin midgut is referred to as small intestine.
The primary site of digestion and absorption.
Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by intestinal cells and glands.
Macromolecules broken down to monomers and absorbed into blood.
Maximizing surface area increases ability to absorb.
Is the final segment.
Function of Large Intestine:
Recover water and ions.
Urinary and digestive wastes expelled through the same opening.
Adaptations of Vertebrate Digestive Systems:
Digestive systems are variations on a common plan.
There are adaptations related to diet.
is a structural variation reflecting diet.
Mammals have varying dentition adapted to their diet.
Differences in dentition patterns:
Carnivores - Tearing meat (large canines)
Herbivores - Chewing tough plants (no or small canines, many molars)
Omnivores - Balanced set of teeth for meat and plants.
Snakes - Modified fangs to inject venom with unhingeable jaws.
Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations:
Herbivores have longer alimentary canals reflecting longer digestion times.
Carnivores eat larger food pieces and store for a longer time due to fewer resources.
Herbivores have fermentation chambers.
Symbiotic microorganisms digest cellulose.
Enzymes lacked in animal but present in microorganism.
Herbivore with Elaborate adaptation.
Multiple chambers to digest to a certain point.
Provides chemical energy.
Need a source of organic carbon and nitrogen.
Essential nutrients must be obtained from diet.
Name the four classes of essential nutrients.
Essential Amino Acids
Essential Fatty Acids
Require 20 amino acids.
Can synthesize about half from diet.
Remaining, essential amino acids, in preassembled form.
Protein insufficient diet causes malnutrition called protein deficiency.
Meat, eggs, and cheese are "complete" proteins.
Most plant proteins are incomplete.
Plant proteins need specific plant combinations.
Adaptations help periods when demanding lots of protein.
Essential Fatty Acids:
Unsaturated fatty acids and obtained by diet.
Animals can synthesize most fatty acids.
Deficiencies in fatty acids are rare.
Organic molecules required in small amounts.
13 vitamins essential to humans have been identified.
Vitamins are either grouped fat-soluble and water-soluble.
Simple inorganic nutrients, required in small amounts.
Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Iron
Undernourishment is a diet that supplies less energy than required.
An Undernourished Individual Will:
Use up stored fat and carbohydrates.
Break down its own proteins.
Lose muscle mass.
Suffer protein deficiency of the brain.
Die or suffer irreversible damage.
Long-term absence from diet of essential nutrients.
Cause deformities, disease, and death.
Corrected by changes to diet.
Balances energy from metabolism, activity, and storage.
ATP generation is based on oxidation of energy-rich molecules:
Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats.
Stores excess calories as glycogen in liver and muscles.
Secondarily stored as adipose, or fat, cells.
Fewer calories than expended leads to usage from storage and oxidized.
Effect of Obesity:
Diabetes (type 2)
Cancer (colon, breasts)
Feedback circuits controls storage and metabolism of fat long-term.
Hormones regulate long-term and short-term affect a "satiety center".
Complexity of weight control is evident from studies leptin. (hormone)
Mice with defect in leptin gene become very obese.
Problem of Maintaining Weight:
From our past, when fat hoarding meant survival.
A species of birds called petrels become obese as chicks.