Lineage of modern humans table 21 final exam.txt

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Lineage of modern humans table 21 final exam.txt
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2011-12-11 11:04:12
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lineage modern humans
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  1. Crenarchaeota
    adaptation: snG-1-phospholipids
  2. Eubacteria
    • adaptations: snG-3-phospholipids
    • murein cell wall
  3. Eryarchaeota
    • adaptations: Histone proteins
    • pseudomurein cell walls
  4. Lysogenic viral Eurarchaeota
    • adaptations: nucleus
    • cytoskeleton forms food vacuoles for phagocytosis
    • EXTINCT
  5. Unikont Amoebae
    adaptation: proto-mitochondrion (by endosymbiosis of diderm eubac)
  6. Opisthokont Choanoflagellates
    adaptation: posterior flagellum, filter feeding
  7. Diploblastic sponges
    adaptation: synthesis of COLLAGEN
  8. Coelenterates
    • adaptations: nervous system present
    • 2 germ layers
  9. Acoelomate flatworms
    • adaptation: Tripoblastic embryos (1st muscle formed)
    • gives rise to protostones (develop into anus), and dustones (mouth)
  10. Urochordates
    • adaptation: deuterstome development
    • larval notochord from mesoderm - filter feeders on surface of oceans
  11. Agnathan Craniates
    adaptation: Dorsal nerve cord
  12. Agnathan Ostracoderms
    • adaptation: verbal column, bony plated skin
    • EXTINCT
  13. Gnathostome Placoderms
    • adaptation: JAWS for gill respiration & predation
    • EXTINCT
  14. Osteichthyes
    • bony fishes
    • adaptation: Endoskeleton of bone
  15. Amphibians
    • adaptation: terrestrial tetrapods
    • 3 chambered heart
  16. Reptiles
    • adaptation: amniote egg (no h20 to lay eggs)
    • 4 chambered heart
  17. Synapsids
    • adaptation: 1 post-orbital pair of skull openings
    • left-side aorta
    • (occurred during cooling period)
    • ie, Dimetrodon used its sail to possibly warm its blood
    • EXTINCT
  18. Therapsids
    • adaptation: second palate
    • LARGE canine teeth
    • (these originated near ice caps, so as cooling continued they were dominant..synapsids now extinct)
    • ie, Biarmosuchus
  19. Cynodonts
    • adaptation: 1st CHEWING teeth, hair or fur
    • Squamosal JAW articulation
    • articular & quadratic middle EAR bones
    • ie, Procynosudius
    • EXTINCT
  20. Mammaliaforms
    • adaptation: diaphragm, endothermy (based on COMPLETE 4 chambered heart)
    • ie, Morganucodon
    • EXTINCT
  21. Prototheria
    • adaptation: 3 middle ear bones
    • Gain, then loss of molars due to adaptations in DIET
    • ie, Monotremes
  22. Metatheria
    • adaptation: give birth to LIVE YOUNG (vs eggs)…vivipary, w/maternal pouch
    • Gain of tribosphenic molars
    • ie, Marsupials
  23. Eutheria
    • adaptation: Maternal Placenta…LONG interal gestation period
    • KneeCaps
    • ie, Placentals
  24. Afrotherian
    • adaptation: Adaptive radiation (when Africa separated from S America)
    • ie, Proboscidea
  25. Xenarthra
    • adaptation: Adaptive radiation (when S America sep. from N America)
    • ie, Pilosa
  26. Laurasiatheria
    • adaptation: Adaptive radiation (when West coast of N America separated from east)
    • ie, Carnivora
  27. Euarchontoglires
    • adaptation: Adaptive radiation (when East coast of N America sep. from EUROPE)
    • ie, Primates
  28. Strepsirhines
    • adaptation: Arboreal habitat
    • Stereoscopic vision (eyes in front vs sides)
    • ie, lemurs…earliest primates
  29. Haplorhives
    • adaptation: eyes incased in bony orbits (protect against branches when jumpin thru trees)
    • ie, tarsiers
  30. Platyrrhines
    • adaptation: prohensile tails, widely spaced nostrils
    • ie, ceboids
  31. Catarrhines
    • adaptation: narrowly spaced nostrils
    • ie, cercopithecoids
  32. Hominoids
    • adaptation: loss of TAIL
    • ie, apes & humans
  33. Family Pongidae
    • adaptation: semi-arboreal (not able to live in trees for whole life)
    • ie, orangitange apes
  34. African Apes
    • adaptation: knuckle walking - support some front body weight
    • ie, gorillas
  35. Chimpanzees
    • adaptation: isolated patches of rainforest meant WALKING thru savanas in between forests
    • ie, bonobo (similar to humans)
  36. Australopithecines
    • adaptation: bipedal, diving reflex, fat for buoyancy, hairless body for swimming, FLESHY nose to protect nasal cavities from filling w/water
    • EXTINCT
  37. Homohabilis
    • adaptation: Stone knives for butchering pray
    • EXTINCT
  38. Homoerectus
    • adaptation: fire for warmth, cooking & toolmaking
    • EXTINCT
  39. Homo neanderthalensis
    • adaptation: heavy SKULL to protect against prey
    • EXTINCT
  40. Homo sapiens
    adaptation: adapted for semi-tropical habitats

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