origin of animal groups not in lineage to humans T 22 final exam.txt

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  1. Proterozoic era
    • 1. Subkingdom Diploblastia (2 embryonic germ layers)
    • -phylum Porifera - sponges (collagen synthesis & nervous system)
    • -phylum Cnidaria - jellyfish (nerve & muscle cells
    • 2. Subkingdom Triploblastia (3 embryonic layers)
    • a. Superphylum Lophotrochozoa: soft-bodied protosomes
    • -phylum Platyhelminthes - flatworms (bilateral symmetry
    • -phylum Mollusca - mollusks (ventral nerve cord), octopus, cuddlefish
    • -phylum Annelida - (closed circulation & Hemoglobin)..can handle high pressure
    • b. Superphylum Ecdysozoa: external cuticle protosomes
    • -phylum Nematoda or roundworms (pseudocoelom)
    • -phylum Onychophora or Velvet worms (eucoelom)
    • -phylum Tardigrada or Water bears (resting cyst)
    • -phylum Arthropoda (joint appendages)
    • --Class Chelicerata (pincher like organism)
    • --Class Myriapods (centipede)
    • --Class Crustacea (5 head appendages)
    • --Class Insecta (6 thorax appendages)
    • c. Superphylum Deuterostomia: mouth 2nd opening
    • -phylum Echinodermata (enterocoelom H20 skeleton) high pressure generated..use to clamp w/feet
    • -phylum Hemichordata (dorsal nerve chord, GILL slits)
    • -phylum Urochordata (larva notochord)
  2. Cambrian era
    • -phylum Chordata
    • subphylum Craniata (CRANIUM, as in members of class Agnatha, like hagfish)
  3. Ordovician era
    • -phylum Chordata
    • subphylum VERTEBRATA (Vertebral column of cartilage or bone that protects, as in some members of Agnatha class)
  4. Silurian Period
    • Class Gnathostomata: (jaws for Gill respiration & predation)
    • Class Chondrichthyes: (reduced bony-plated skin…cartilaginous endoskeleton - less armor traded for more agility)
    • Class Osteichthyes: (endoskeleton of bone)
    • -subclass Acinopterygii (ray-finned fish)
    • --INFRAclass Chondrostei (late-skeletal ossification, ie paddlefish)
    • --INFRAclass Holostei (thin-skeleton ossifications, ie bowfins)
    • --INFRAclass Teleostei (thick-skeleton, ie perch, tuna, herring)
    • -subclass Sarcopterygii (FLESHY-finned fishes, like lungfishes)
  5. Devonian Period
    • Class Amphibia: earliest amphibians, had both lungs & gills, internal choana, tetrapod limbs, 8 digits in each forelimb, 7 digits in hindlimbs
    • -Subclass Temnospondyli (INCREASE bony portion of vertebral column, DECREASE cartilage portion gives rise to lissamphibians
    • --Order Anura (tail-less frogs & toads) majority
    • --Order Urodela ((tailed salamanders
    • --Order Apoda (leg-less caecilians) least numerous
  6. Carboniferous Period
    • Subclass Anthracosauria: INCREASE flexibility…less bone & more cartilage. GIves rise to amniotes (able to lay eggs in TERRESTRIAL habitats)
    • Reptiles evolving from Amphibians not exact…somewhere in this period
    • Class Reptilia: amniotic egg, loss of gilled larva stage, partial 4-chambered heart, urea & uric acid waste products vs. AMMONIA for amphibian
    • -SUBclass Anapsida: no post-orbital fenestrae, w/weak temporalis muscles, like captorhinomorphs
    • -SUBclass Synapsida: one pair post-orbital fenestrae w/strong temporalis muscles & retractable mandible (increase jaw strength), left side aorta (right side does not persist)
    • -SUBclass Diapsida: 2 pairs of post-orbital fenestrae, w/strong temporalis muscles & EXTENDable mandible, right sided aorta like dinosaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs & all modern reptilian Sphenodontia, Crocodilia, Testudines & Squamata
  7. Permian Period
    • Subclass Synapsida: dominant terrestrial predators until glacial age(like Dimetrodon)
    • Subclass Therapsida: dominant terrestrial predators until Mesozoic Era (end of permian & start of Triassic)…like Biarmosuchus
  8. Triassic Period
    • Subclass Archosauria: dominant terrestrials due to pre-orbital fenestrae reducing weight of skull & INCREASING maneuverability & speed in both chasing prey and eluding predators. Include Phytosaurs, crocodiles, rauisuchians, pterosaurs & DINOSAURS
    • Dinosaurs Superorder (CLASS): had best lungs when O2 levels became low, they were most able to adapt
    • -Order Saurischia: most ancient…lizard-hipped, like Eoraptor
    • --Suborder Theropoda: mainly bipedal & carniverous like Allosaurus & Velociraptor
    • --Suborder Sauropodomorpha: members mainly quadrupedal like Brachiosaurus & Diplodocus. (Largest & heaviest, longest, tallest of all)
    • -Order Ornithischia: Bird-hipped
    • --Suborder Thyreophora: bony plates like Stegasaurus & Ankylosaurus
    • --Suborder Cerapoda: NOT as heavily armored, like Triceratops & Iguanodon
  9. Jurassic Period
    • EVOLUTION of Birds
    • Class Aves: new adaptations from dinosaurs to distinguish them into own class
    • -Suborder Therapoda: in Order Saurischia (of the dinosaurs superorder)
    • -Neotheropods: like ceratosaurus, had hollow bones
    • -Neotetanurans: like Allosaurs, had ROTARY wrist
    • -Coelurosaurians: like Sinosauropteryx, had FEATHERS
    • -Maniraptorian: like Cendipteryx, had VEINS, pre-adapted for flight
    • -Paravians: like Velociraptor, stiff distal TAIL
    • -Avians: like Archaeopteryx, had Asymmetric feathers
    • -Evornithes: true birds…deep STERNUM
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origin of animal groups not in lineage to humans T 22 final exam.txt
2011-12-11 16:13:48
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