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- Different geographical areas (no bordering Hybrid zones)
- a. Vicariant: geographic barrier comes AFTER ancestral species arrives.
- ie brown bears of Kamchatka were present prior to Riss Glacial period. Glaciers moved and formed barrier b/w ancestral asian brown bears & descendents Kamchatka subpopulations. Barrier is the GLACIERS
- b. Dispersal: aka Peripatric speciation. Barrier comes BEFORE ancestral species arrives.
- ie Hawaiian islands emerge from Pacific ocean & one species of Drosophila colonize initially. This spawns over 800 new descendent species of Drosophila thru dispersal (island hopping). Barrier is the OCEAN
- Different geographical areas w/narrow hybridization zones
- ie, Grass Anthoxanthum odoratum diverged into metal-tolerant and metal-intolerant populations. note, their F1 hybrids don't thrive in either soil, so the 2 populations are classified as 2 species.
- Exact SAME geographical areas
- ie, apple maggot fly Rhagoletis pomonella diverged INTO subpopulations feeding on 1. Hawthorn berries and 2. apples. Aquired genetic diff and breeding cycles help make it different
- Descendent species originates WITHIN SAME geographic area of ancestral species
- ie, several chrom inversions have diverged ancestral population of Australian grasshopper Keyacriscurra