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Why is it important for the nurse to learn the generic names of drugs? (SATA)
A. The same generic name is never used for more than one medication.
B. Generic names tell the nurse the chemical ingredients
C. The generic name of a drug will be the same no matter which company produces the drug
D. Generic names are easily to recall and prnounce.
E. Generic names often suggest the action of the drug.
F. Generic names of drugs in the same therapeutic class often have a simiar suffix making them easy to Identify.
Drugs can cross cell membranes in three ways.
Match the method of movement with characteristics for that method of movement.
a. passage through channels
b. direct penetration of the membrane
c. passage with the aid of a transport system
1. May require energy or pores
2. Require small size
Requires lipid solubility
The four processes of pharmacokinetics have which of the following characteristics in common?
a. stimulation of receptors
b. Blocking of processes
c. dose-response relationship
Insulin is a hormone that is available as a drug. It combines with receptors on cardiac and skeletal muscle and fat cells to facilitate the transport mechanism that allows the glucose molecule to enter the cell. Why does glucose require a transport mechanism to enter these cells? (SATA)
a. glucose is water soluble
b. glucose is fat soluble
c. glucose is too large to cross the cell membrane through a channel
d. glucose is an ion
e. glucose is a quanternary ammonia compound
A 15-year-old young woman comes to a family planning clinic and is diagnosed with primary syphilis. Based on knowledge that developmentally this patient is not likely to adhere to a lenghthy treatment plan, the best route for administering an antibiotic to this patient is
a. a once a day oral pill
b. a depot intramuscular (IM) injection
c. an IV infusion
d. a topical cream
The nuse is reading research about a drug. The literature states that the drug is potent. This means the drug
a. produces its effects at low doses
b. produces strong effects at any dose
c. requires high doses to produce its effects
d. is very likely to cause adverse effects
Except for gene therapy, which of the following statements are true about drug-receptor interactions? (SATA)
a. drugs can mimic the actions of endogenous molecules
b. receptors for drugs do not respond to hormones and neurotransmitters produced by the body
c. the binding of a drug to its receptor is usually irreverisible.
d. drugs can block the actions of endogenous molecules
e. drugs can give the cell new functions
Metoprolol [Lopressor, Betaloc] is a drug that is a selective antagonist for beta1-adrenergic receptors. When stimulated, beta1- receptors of the heart increase the heart rate. The nurse should assess the patient receiving metoprolol for excessive response, which would be seen as
a. hypertension and tachycardia
b. hypertension and bradycardia
c. hypotension and tachycardia
d. hypotension and bradycardia
Identify which of the following substances can cause drug interactions. (SATA)
d. OTC drugs
f. Prescription drugs
A, B, C D, E, F, G, H
A patient has toxic levels of an alkaline drug in his blood. The drug is excreted unchanged in the urine. The nurse anticipates administration of which of the following substances to increase excretion of the alkaline substance?
a. Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
b. antacids (tums)
c. acetylsalacylic Acid (Aspirin)
d. Ascorbic acid (vitamin c)
Adverse drug reactions occur more often in (SATA)
a. patients taking mulitple drugs
b. patients taking potent drugs
c. situations where a drug error occur
d. patients ofer 60 years of age
e. patients younger than 1 year of age
f. malnourished patients
g. accidental poisonings
Match the adverse effects.
1. bleeding with minor trauma such as brushing teeth
2. frequent or unusual infections
3. numbness and tingling around the mouth
4. platelet count less than 100,000/mm3
5. unexplained bruising
6. WBC count less than 5,000/mm3
The nurse is teaching a patient who has been prescribed terbinafine HCl [Lamisil] tablets 250mg once a day for 12 weeks for toenail onychomycosis. Because the drug can be hepatotoxic, the nurse teaches the patient to report (SATA)
b. light-colored stool
d. yellow-colored skin
e. pale conjunctiva
h. N & V
i. tarry stool
B, D, F, H
A terminal cancer patient has been receiving narcotic analgesics for severe pain for more than 6 months. The prescriber has increased the dose of the long-acting opiate and added and "as needed" opiate for breakthrough pain. The nurse should
a. recognize that the higher dose is needed because the patient would have undergone down-regulation of opiate receptors.
b. recoginze that the additional medcation is needed because cancer causes an up-regulation of opiate receptors.
c. question the higher dose of medication because the patient is at risk for narcotic addiction.
d. question why the medication is being prescribed on a regular and an as needed basis.
The difference between pharmacodynamic and metabolic (pharmacokinetic) tolerance is that there is a decreased response to the drug in tolerance and
a. both involve high levels of the drug in the blood, but pharmacodynamic tolerance involves lack of response, and metabolic tolerance involves normal response.
b. both involve high levels of the drug in the blood, but metabolic tolerance involves lack of response, and pharmacodynamic tolerance involves excessive response.
c. pharmacodynamic tolerance is lack of response to high levels of the drug in the blood, and metabolic tolerance is lack of response is because of low levels of the drug in the blood.
d. pharmacodynamic tolerance is excessive response to low levels of the drug in the blood, and metabolic tolerance is lack of response is because of high levels of the drug in the blood.
Based on differences in metabolism of alcohol between the sexes, if both a man and woman consume the same amount of alcohol (on a weight-adjusted basis) and take the drug mentronidazole (Flagyl), the disulfiram reaction between alcohol and the drug in the woman should (SATA)
a. last longer than in the man
b. abate sooner than in the man
c. be more intense than in the man
d. be less intense than in the man
Warfin sodium (Coumadin) is a drug that slows the formation of clots. It is highly protein bound. Only the unbound fraction of the drug is active. If the nurse is administering warafin to a malnourished patient with a serum protein level of 4.9 gm/dL, the nurse would expect the patient's response to the drug to be
a. more intense with a greater risk for bleeding
b. less intense with a greater risk for bleeding
c. more intense with a lesser risk for bleeding
d. less intense witha lesser risk for bleeding
Which statements about older adults and pharmacotherapy are generally true? (SATA)
a. the goal of therapy for the older adult is to cure the disease
b. there is a wider individual variation in drug response in the older adult
c. Older adults are less sensitive to drugs
d. Older adults absorb less of the dose of medication than younger individuals
e. absorption of many drugs slows with aging
f. changes in body fat and lean body mass that occur with aging can cause lipid-soluble drugs to decrease in effect and water-soluble drugs to have a more intense effect
g. liver enzyme activity may be increased in the older adult
h. drug accumulation secondary to decreased renal excretion is the most common cause of adverse reactions in older adults
i. a reduction in the number of receptors and/ordecreased affinity for receptors in the older adult may decrease the response to drugs that work by receptor interaction
B, E, F, H, I
An older adult with liver disease is receiving several drugs that are normally highly protein bound. The patient's serum albumin is 2.8 mg/dL (normal 3.5 to 5 mg/dL). The nurse needs to assess the patient for symptoms of
a. excessive action of the drugs
b. inadequate action of the drugs
The nurse is aware that anticholinergic adverse effect of drugs can be more common and a greater problem in the elderly than in the younger adult. Which of the following anticholinergic effects would warrent prompt consultation with the prescriber?
a. blurred vision
b. dry mouth
c. has not voided
d. no BM for 48 hours