Bio Final 1

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Bio Final 1
2011-12-11 14:05:07
tubberly bfinal

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  1. 1% Recombination
    map unit (centimorgan)
  2. 1o Sex Determination
    Sry (TDF) activates genes necessary for testes formation
  3. 2o Sex Determination
    Tfm+ encodes for receptor protein of androgens
  4. 2n
    diploid: somatic cells and germ cells
  5. 3o Sex Determination
  6. 5 Bromo Uracil
    thymine look alike. Giemsa stains for half substitution of it under fluorescent light. Must be added prior to DNA replication in order to have half substitution
  7. Addition Rule
    probability of either A or B equals P(A)+P(B) is true if A and B are mutually exclusive events
  8. Alfred Sturtevant
    used recombination frequencies to determine genetic map
  9. Allele
    alternate form of gene
  10. Anaphase 1
    bivalent breaks apart and homologs separate to poles
  11. Anaphase
    centromeres divide all at the same time
  12. Ascospore
    eight are produced as a result of meiosis followed by mitosis
  13. Ascus
    sheath that encompasses ascospores
  14. Augustus Weismann
    germ cells form very early, travel through the body and populate the gonad, multiplying by meiosis and mitosis
  15. Autosome
    not a sex chromosome
  16. Auxotrope
    a mutated version of an organism that needs a supplement to survive, which is not required by the wild type
  17. Binomial Equation
    • p=P(A)
    • q=P(B)
    • n=number of trials
    • s=number of times event A occurs
    • t=number of times event B occurs
    • (n!/(s!t!))psqt
  18. Bivalent
    sister chromatids adhere to one another and homologs are joined at chiasmata
  19. Calvin Bridges
    found matroclinous and patroclinous exceptions, which are caused by non-disjunction
  20. Chi Squared Test
  21. Chromatid Interference
    does not exist. The occurrence of a crossover between two chromatids reduces the likelihood that those chromatids are used in the event of a second crossover
  22. Chromatin
    network of fibers in nucleus
  23. Chromomeres
    local condensation of chromatin
  24. Cis
    in coupling-alleles together on same homolog
  25. Coefficient of Coincidence
    c.o.c-observed double crossovers/expected double crossovers
  26. Cuénot
    found lethal allele in mice
  27. Diplotene (& diakinesis) becomes clear that each homolog has 2 chromatids. Homologs seem to repel one another, yet stay physically associated. Sister chromatids adhere to each other because of protein cohesin. Loss of sister chromatid adhesion initiates anaphase I
  28. Elinor Carothers
    grassshoppers have chromosome pair in which homologs are not identical, and males have one chromosome with no homolog called an accessory or x chromosome
  29. Epistasis
    masking phenotype of a gene by an allele of another
  30. Expresivity
    degree to which phenotype is altered in individuals that are affected
  31. Frans Janssens
    came up with the correct model of a crossover. Crossing over takes place after replication
  32. Gamete
    Sex cell
  33. Gene
    name for one of Mendel’s factors
  34. Genotype
    genetic makeup description of alleles carried
  35. Germ Cells
    give rise to gametes
  36. Gregor Mendel
    approached heredity from a mathematical standpoint with garden peas
  37. Hemizygous
    chromosome present in only one copy
  38. Heterogametic
    2 chromosome types in gamete
  39. Heterozygote
    carries different alleles of a gene
  40. Hippocrates
    400BC-parts of the body excrete an essence into sex cell causing inheritable traits. Aristotle disagreed based on amputees etc. Darwin agreed with this, but used fancy words (gemules).
  41. Homogametic
    1 chromosome type in gamete
  42. Homolog
    a member of a pair of chromosomes
  43. Homozygote
    carries identical alleles of a gene
  44. Interference
    occurrence of crossover inhibits/interferes with other from occurring nearby. 1-c.o.c
  45. Interphase
    nuclei stain very brightly with basic dyes due to acidic nature of DNA in chromatin. DNA replication occurs
  46. Karyotype
    chromosome sets as seen at end of prophase
  47. Klinefelter’s Syndrome
    XXY feminized males, sterile, tall, long limbs, some degree of mental retardation 1/5000
  48. Leptotene
    ”thin thread” chromatin condensation begins
  49. Linkage
    association of genes together on same chromosome
  50. Locus
    position of gene on chromosome
  51. Matroclinous
    sons because they look like mothers due to criss-cross inheritance
  52. McClung-determined grasshopper sex
  53. Meiosis I
    reduces chromosome number from 2n to n
  54. Meisosis II
    essentially a miotic division
  55. Mendel’s 1st Law
    Law of Segregation-each trait is controlled by particulate factors that occur in pairs. During gamete formation the members of a pair segregate from one another so that each gamete receives only one. Double number is restored upon fertilization.
  56. Mendel’s 2nd Law
    Law of Independent Assortment-genes assort independently
  57. Metaphase I
    bivalents align at equator
  58. Metaphase
    centromeres of chromosomes attach to spindle fibers along equator
  59. Microtubules
    spindle fibers; made of tubulin
  60. Mitosis
    all parts of cell randomly divide between daughter cell except for nucleus
  61. Morgan
    Recombination frequency between two genes is proportional to how far apart genes are
  62. Multiplication Rule
    probability of A followed by B equals P(A)(P(B)) is true only if A and B are independent outcomes
  63. n
    haploid: gametes
  64. Nondisjuntion
    in anaphase one homologs go to same pole either because they fail to become associated with one another or the bivalent gets tangled
  65. P Value
    probability of obtaining data that fit model as badly as those obtained or even worse
  66. Pachytene
    ”thick thread” condensation continues, and homologs are held together by lateral elements and one central element (hom)[lat][central][lat](hom) (drawn impressively to scale) Central element is formed from lateral elements and only where they are joined
  67. Patroclinous
    daughters because they look like fathers duet o criss-cross inheritance
  68. Penetrance
    percent of individuals with allele that express phenotype
  69. Phenotype
    character determined by genotype
  70. Pleiotropy
    superficially unrelated phenotype from single allele
  71. Post-Mendel Discoveries
    • 1. Fertilization involves fusion of single sperm/egg cell
    • 2. Although grossly different in size they contribute about the same
    • 3. Sperm contributes nucleus and little else to zygote
  72. Probability
    proportion of times event is expected to occur in repeated trials
  73. Prophase I
    by the end the homologs are physically associated with one another. Leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis
  74. Prophase
    chromatin condensation occurs, and chromatin condenses into chromosomes. At end of prophase the nuclear envelope breaks down and spindle fibers from
  75. Propositus
    individual that brought attention to pedigree
  76. Punnett Square
    a twisted game of 4-square invented by Mendel while studying peas
  77. Pure Breeding
  78. Recombination Frequency
    non parental gametes/total gametes
  79. Recombination
    process of generating new gametic type
  80. Reductional Division
    Meiosis I
  81. Sex Chromosome
    chromosome that differs between genders
  82. Sex linked
    gene located on sex chromosome
  83. Somatic Cells
    all the other cells in the body
  84. Synapsis
    precise paring of 2 homologs into a bivalent
  85. Telophase I
    spindle breaks down, nuclear envelope reforms, cell divides, usually straight to meiosis II
  86. Telophase
    spindle breaks down, and nuclear envelope reforms causing cell to divide. Chromatin decondenses
  87. Test Cross
    cross to pure breeding recessive
  88. Thomas Hunt Morgan
    showed criss cross inheritance in D. melangoaster
  89. Trans
    in repulsion alleles on different homologs
  90. Triple X
    XXX tall, fertile, women 1/700
  91. Turner’s Syndrome
    XO underdeveloped sexual characteristics, usually sterile, short, webbing in neck skin, mentally normally 1/5000
  92. Walter Sutton
    Chromosome Theory-genes are on chromosomes
  93. Y chromosome
    it’s what makes men men, determines sex of gonad
  94. Zygote
    formed by fusion of 2 gametes
  95. Zygotene
    ”paired thread” homologs pair with one another, chromomeres form causing synapsis and forming bivalent