Microbio Final

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  1. Enzootic
    endemic to certain animal populations
  2. Epizootic
    epidemic proportions among animals - increases chance humans become infected
  3. Type: Virus
    Vector: Direction transmission through saliva
    Hosts: Large host range
    Presentation: excitation, anxiety, hydrophobia.
    Diagnosis: negri bodies and RT-PCR.
    Treatment: Vaccine (preventative) and immune globulin
    Rhabdovirus (Rabies)
  4. Type: Virus
    Vector: Rodents' droppings (direct transmission)
    Hosts: Rodents, humans
    Presentation: Respiratory and cardiac distress; shock and kidney failure. Fever, muscle pain, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, capillary leakage.
    Diagnosis: ELISA for antibodies; PCR for viral pressence.
    Treatment: None.
    Hantavirus with HPS (Hantavirus pumonary syndrome) or HFRS (Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome)
  5. Type: Virus
    Vector: Fluids from mammals (Direct)
    Hosts: Monkeys and unidentified original hosts
    Presentation: Fever, diarrhea, vomitting, internal and external bleeding.
    Diagnosis: (Probably ELISA and PCR - not stated in notes)
    Treatment: None
    Marburg (vecor - monkeys) and Ebloa (vector - unknown)
  6. Type: Bacteria
    Vector: Body Lice (direct - arthropod)
    Hosts: Humans (Maybe others)
    Presentation: Fever, headache, weakness, rash everywhere except face, palms and soles.
    Diagnosis: Observation of bacteria and rash.
    Treatment: Tetracycline and chloramphenicol.
  7. Type: Bacteria
    Vector: Tick (arthropod - direct)
    Hosts: Humans (maybe others)
    Presentation: Fever, severe headache, rash over whole body, spots.
    Diagnosis: Observation of bacteria and rash.
    Treatment: Tetracycline and chloramphenicol.
    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  8. Type: Bacteria
    Vector: Tick (direct - arthropod)
    Hosts: Humans, deers, rodents
    Presentation: Flu-like symptoms, decreased WBC (leukopenia), change in liver function, mild rash.
    Diagnosis: Observation of WBCs.
    Treatment: Doxycycline.
    Ehrlichosis (HME - human monocytic erlichosis or HGA - human granulocytic anaplasmosis)
  9. Type: Bacteria
    Vector: Tick (direct - arthropod)
    Hosts: deer, humans, rodents.
    Presentation: acute-headache, backache, chills, fatigue, bullseye rash.
    Diagnosis: Observation, ELISA, Western blot and PCR.
    Treatment: Preventative (DEET) and vaccine (withdrawn from market). Antibiotics post infection.
    Lyme disease.
  10. Type: Bacteria
    Vector: Flea (direct - arthropod)
    Hosts: Rodents, accidental humans
    Presentation: Swollen lymph nodes, gangrene, hemorrhaging.
    Diagnosis: (none statded, would guess ELISA, PCR observation)
    Treatment: Antibiotics
    Plague (Bubonic, pneumonic (more lethal), sylvatic (present in US))
  11. Type: Virus
    Vector: Mosquito
    Hosts: Humans, horses, birds
    Presentation: Fever, headache, nausea
    Diagnosis: ELISA
    Treatment: None for humans (vaccine for horses)
    West Nile Virus
  12. Type: Virus
    Vector: Mosquito
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Sever bone and joint pain, high fever, headache malaise. Second exposure - homorrhagic.
    Diagnosis: (ELISA? PCR?)
    Treatment: None
    Dengue Fever
  13. Type: Virus
    Vector: Mosquito
    Hosts: Monkeys, humans.
    Presentation: Fever, nausea, vomitting (black), jaundice, hemorrhagic.
    Diagnosis: (ELISA?, PCR?)
    Treatment: Vaccine.
    Yellow Fever
  14. Type: Protozoa
    Vector: Mosquito
    Hosts: Mosquitos and humans.
    Presentation: Cycles of chills and high fever.
    Diagnosis: Blood smear, immunoassays, PCR.
    Treatment: Quinine, Primaquine, Sickle-cell. Prevention with bed nets, DDT, prophylitic drugs.
  15. Type: Helminth
    Vector: Mosquito
    Hosts: Humans and mosquitos
    Presentation: Blocked lymph nodes.
    Diagnosis: (Observation? blood smears?)
    Treatment: Anti-worm drugs.
    Lymphatic filariasis (elephantitis)
  16. Type: Protozoa
    Vector: Sand flies
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Skin lesions, systemic lesions.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: Drugs available with side effects.
  17. Type: Helminth
    Vector: Deer flies
    Hosts: Human eyes.
    Presentation: Worm in your eye, no blindness.
    Treatment: (? I'd assume drugs)
  18. Type: Helminth
    Vector: Blackflies
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Blindness.
    Diagnosis: Blindness (Bloodsmears? ELISA?)
    Treatment: Drugs available if cought before blind.
    River Blindness
  19. Type: Protozoa.
    Vector: Tsetse fly
    Hosts: Humans
    Presntation: Fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes (back and neck)
    Diagnosis: Bloodsmear.
    Treatment: Toxic drugs.
    African Sleeping Sickness
  20. Type: Protozoa.
    Vector: Kissing bug
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Mild initially, chronic leads to heart failure.
    Diangosis: Lesions on heart (Blood smear?)
    Treatment: Drugs are effective during initial exposure.
    Chagas disease
  21. Type: Fungal
    Vector: Soil
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: White patches in mouth and on tongue.
    Diagnosis: (Culture?)
    Treatment: Anti-fungals.
    • Thrush (also similar ones are vaginitis, and yellow nails)
    • Be familiar with ringworm, athlete's foot, madura food)
  22. Type: Bacteria exotoxin.
    Vector: Soil
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Muscle cramping, lockjaw.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: Vaccine (preventative). Antibiotics and anti-toxins not very effective (post-exposure)
  23. Type: Bacteria enterotoxin.
    Vector: Water
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Watery diarrhea.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: Replace water and electroylytes. Antibiotics ineffective, vaccine only carries short term immunity.
  24. Type: Bacteria
    Vector: Water (Spec. AC units)
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Mild 'Pontiac fever,' pneumonia in immunocompromized (old and young)
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: Antiobiotics via IV
    Legionnaire's Diesase
  25. Type: Bacteria
    Vector: Water (Fecal to oral)
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: ~4 week long GI problems.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: Vaccine, antibiotics
  26. Type: Protozoa, resistnt to chlorine
    Vector: Water (Fecal to oral)
    Hosts: Humans (mammals)
    Presentation: Cysts on intestinal wall, explosive foul smelling diarrhea, cramps, malaise. No blood or mucus in stool.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: Drugs
  27. Type: Protozoa resistant to chlorine
    Vector: Water (1/2 waterborn outbreaks)
    Hosts: Humans (mammals?)
    Presentation: Mild dairrhea for 2 weeks, immunocompromised can be fatal.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: Drugs
  28. Type: Protozoa
    Vector: Water in tropics (fecal to oral).
    Hosts: Humans (mammals?)
    Presentation: 30+ bowel movements a day.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: Drugs available, replace water and electrolytes.
  29. Type: Protozoa
    Vector: Water and soil.
    Hosts: Humans (enters nose, migrates to brain)
    Presentation: SHITS IN YO BRAIN.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: (Drugs?) Lethal within a week.
  30. Type: Helminth
    Vector: Water, snails.
    Hosts: Humans, snails.
    Presentation: Bloody urine, inflamation.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: (?)
  31. Type: Helminth (Copepods)
    Vector: Water
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Blisters with adult worms.
    Diagnosis: Blisters with adult worms.
    Treatment: No drugs or vaccine, filter drinking water (Carter)
    Guinae Worm
  32. Type: Bacteria (enterotoxin)
    Vector: Food (custard, creams, meats)
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Nausea, vomitting, diarrhea for 48 hours 1-6 hours post ingestion.
    Diagnosis: Culturing, Immunoassays, PCR.
    Treatment: Self-limitting.
    Staphylococcal food poisoning
  33. Type: Bacteria (Enterotoxin)
    Vector: Food (meat, poultry, fish)
    Hosts: Humans
    Presenation: Diarrhea, cramping, NO vomitting 7-15 hours after ingestion.
    Diagnosis: Culturing, immunoassays, PCR.
    Treatment: Self-limitting.
    C. perfringes poisoning
  34. Type: Bacteria (Enterotoxin)
    Vector: Uncooked processed food (Canned corn, honey)
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Neurotoxin effects, can be lethal in infants
    Diagnosis: Culturing, immunoassays, PCR.
    Treatment: (?)
    C. botulinum poisoning
  35. Type: Bacteria
    Vector: Food (fecal to oral), poultry, eggs
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Fever, vomitting, diarrhea 8-48 hours after ingestion.
    Diagnosis: Culturing, immunoassays, PCR.
    Treatment: Selflimitting in 48 hours, antibiotics if septic.
    Salmonellosis (Infection)
  36. Type: Bacteria (Enterotoxins)
    Vector: Food (Hamburger and spinach)
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Bloody diarrhea, kidney failure.
    Diagnosis: Culturing, immunoassays, PCR.
    Treatment: (?)
    E. Coli O157:H7 infection
  37. Type: Bacteria
    Vector: Food (poultry, pork, raw shellfish, water)
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Fever, malaise, watery and bloody stool for 7-10 days.
    Diagnosis: Culturing, immunoassays, PCR.
    Treatment: (?)
    Campylobacter infection (Most common infection in US)
  38. Type: Bacteria (psychrotolerant)
    Vector: Food (Cold cuts, upasteurized dairy)
    Hosts: Humans
    Presenation: Eldery and immunosupressed most susceptible
    Diagnosis: Culturing, immunoassays, PCR.
    Treatment: (?)
    Listeriosis infection
  39. Type: Virus
    Vector: Food on cruise ships
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: 24 hours bug
    Diagnosis: (ELISA? PCR?)
    Treatment: None
    Norwalk like virus infection
  40. Type: Protozoa
    Vector: Cat feces, undercooked meat.
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Mild GI. Fetus greatly impacted.
    Diagnosis: Culturing, immunoassays, PCR.
    Treatment: (?)
    Toxoplasmosis food infection
  41. Type: Helminth
    Vector: Food (Pork)
    Hosts: Humans
    Presentation: Intestinal blockage.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: Surgical removal.
    Pork tapeworm food infection
  42. Type: Helminth
    Vector: Food (prok, venison, game)
    Hosts: Human muscle
    Presentation: Food poisoning, muscle pain.
    Diagnosis: (?)
    Treatment: (?) Most adults have anitbodies
    Trichinosis food infection
  43. Hookworms, pinworms, heartworm.
    Clasified as roundworm, can be a result of food infection.
  44. Bioconversion/Biotransformations
    Use of microbes to reduce the cost of chemical synthesis
  45. Bioremediation
    Use of natural or genetically engineered microbes to transform harmful substances into less toxic or non-toxic ones.
  46. Yeast used in bread and beer fermenation
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's/Brewer's yeast)
  47. Fungus used to make soy sauce
    Asperguillus mold
  48. Enzyme derived from bacteria to protect them for bacteriophages. Cuts DNA. Can't cut methylated DNA.
    Restriction Endonucleases
  49. DNA from two sources
    Recombinant DNA
  50. Organism derived from recombinant DNA
    Transgenic organism
  51. Self replicating DNA
  52. Methods of introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells
    • Transfection (equivalent to transformation in prokaryotes)
    • Microinjection
    • Electroporation
  53. Used to determine the location or successful integration of DNA into a cell.
    Reporter gene (like GFP)
  54. A virus vaccine that contains more than one type of immunogen
    Polyvalent vaccine
  55. Used to build a library of genes to look for new enzymes or cellular products
    Gene mining
Card Set
Microbio Final
Diseases for microbio final
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