neuro.txt

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neuro.txt
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Social Neuroscience Final Terms Harris modules 13
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  1. 1990s
    Decade of the brain
  2. Authoritarian Personality
    An exaggerated need to submit to strong authority, rigid adherence toconventional patterns of behavior, a commitment to harsh punishment for deviant behavior, and general hostility (Altmeyer)
  3. Deep Brain Electrodes
    Used to treat patients with severe epilepsy or Parkinson's
  4. Delicate motion
    Nuclei rotate with a frequency proportional to the magnetic field
  5. Descartes
    French philosopher believed that the mind and body were separated (duallism), implicated that the brain (pineal gland) was the interface between the mind and the body
  6. EEG
    A cap consisting of electrodes that detect electrical activity within the brain
  7. Fritz Heider
    Philosopher who demonstrated geometric shapes can be seen as human to other humans (anthropomorphization)
  8. Genetic Assays
    Genetic codes are reviewed for correlations in certain behaviors.
  9. Gestalt Tradition
    The manner in which objects and events are perceived to go together (configuration); emerged in perception research (usually of inanimate objects)
  10. Gordon Allport
    Father of prejudice studies; prejudice emerges from the creation of grouping
  11. Groups
    Basic units of society; provide belonging and security; define individual identities
  12. Homunculus
    A center the controls everything in the brain
  13. Imprinting
    The idea of that there is some phase-sensitive learning of certain social attributes, like language
  14. Individual Differences
    Individual behavior results from stable individual differences in behavioral disposition brought about by stabilities in the social environment
  15. Kurt Lewin
    German-American founder of social psychologist who believed in using the scientific method
  16. Leon Festinger
    Festinger did the theory of cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory
  17. Lesion cases
    Can be used to correlate changes in behavior with region that was lesion
  18. Mentalizing
    Inferring the mental state of another- intentions, goals, desires; satisfies the desire for information and allows prediction of behavior
  19. Mimicry
    People subconsciously make the same emotion of the face that is shown to them
  20. Muzafir Sherif
    Jewish psychologist studied prejudice and stereotyping. Mainly known for the Boys at Camp experiment.
  21. NMR
    Magnetic hydrogen nuclei absorb and re-emit the oscillating radio frequency
  22. PET
    A methodology where patients are injected with radioactive chasers so that blood flow can be tracked within the brain.
  23. Phrenology
    Each part of the brain is responsible for one particular trait
  24. Plato
    The first neuro-sociologist; believed the seat of reason was the heart, not the brain
  25. Power
    Control over valued resources leads to control over another's outcomes
  26. Reliability
    Can the experiment be repeated?
  27. rTMS
    Can be used for specific activation or inactivation in different parts of the brain to observe changes
  28. Social Behavior
    Considers another agent's mental state-- results from cognitions and emotions involving other agents that possess actual, imagined, or implied mental states
  29. Social Learning Theory
    New behavior is acquired through observational learning
  30. Social Neuroscience
    Interdisciplinary attempt to explain social behavior and its neural correlates
  31. Stanley Milgram
    Famous American social psychologist known for his experiment where participants had choices to shock other participants within the study
  32. Status Hierarchies
    A structural feature of society that allows stratification
  33. Validity
    Does the experiment measure what it suppose to measure?
  34. William James
    Father of psychology
  35. Negative correlation
    As one variable increases, another decreases, and vice versa
  36. Alternative Hypothesis
    Alternative hypothesis: A statement that there is a difference between conditions
  37. Between-subjects approach
    Experimental design in which participants are put into 1 of 2 groups: the experimental or the control group.
  38. Confederate
    An actor put in a study by the experimenter to perform some function or behavior. The actual participant does not know that this person is an actor.
  39. Demand Characteristics
    Features introduced to an experiment by virtue of the fact that it is a research study and participants know they are a part of it. Particularly a problem with with-subject studies
  40. Dependent variable/Outcome
    The variable that is measured based on the effect of the IV.
  41. disgust
    a fear of contamination. self-terminating behavior since they (a) motivate avoidance from the emotion-inducing stimuli, and (b) readily habituate.
  42. Effect
    The design must elicit social behavior. Somewhat ok in passive viewing paradigms or social interactions (thanks to the Internet)
  43. Expectation Effects
    The subtle and unintentional transmission of the hypothesis to participants by the experimenter. Controlled best by keeping the experimenter blind to the hypothesis, or at least blind to the condition.
  44. Experiment
    An experiment tests causal relationships between variables in a controlled environment
  45. Experimental Realism
    The situation is involving, participants must take it seriously, and it has an impact on them.
  46. External Validity
    The goal of each experiment IS to be applicable to real-life phenomena;Considers social process as complicated, real-life approximations of the calculations and processes the brain actually performs
  47. Folk Psychology
    People have their own theories and hypotheses about the behaviors researchers are testing
  48. Hypothesis
    A statement about the effect of an IV on a DV
  49. Impact
    The subject must believe the sociality of the situation. Extremely difficult with electrode cap, inside scanner, or electrodes attached to face, fingers, or chest.
  50. Independent variable/Predictor
    the variable that is manipulated
  51. Mediation:
    One variable completely explains the relationship between two variables. A-->B-->C
  52. Moderation
    There is a different relationship between two variables at different levels of a third variable. Kind of like a confounding variable.
  53. Mundane Realism
    The extent to which events occurring in the laboratory are likely to occur in the real world
  54. Neutral
    There is no neutral for social stimuli; neutral is always slightly positive.
  55. Null Hypothesis
    A statement that there is no difference between experimental and control conditions
  56. Population
    The wider set of variables (people) about which an inference is made.
  57. Positive correlation:
    As one variable increases or decreases, so does another.
  58. Psychological Realism
    The psychological processes that occur in real-life occur in the experiment
  59. Quazi-Experiment
    Elements of an experiment, often without strict control
  60. Reverse Inferences
    An inference about functionality based statistical differences in a task
  61. Sample
    The data collected in the experiment
  62. Statistical Inference
    A probability assessment from a sample that an observed difference or effect really exists in a population. Usually 95%
  63. Theory Testing
    The goal of each experiment is not necessarily to be applicable to real-life phenomena. Considers neuroscience techniques as additional dependent variable for social psychology theory–testing.
  64. Variables
    A part of the experiment that is manipulated or measured
  65. within-subjects approach
    Experimental design in which participants serve as their own controls (1 subject, 2 conditions). Difficult to achieve in many social behavior experiments
  66. Amygdala
    almond-shaped subcortical region; phylogenetically old; one of the most connected brain regions implicated in many behaviors; emotion. Probably a vigilance region. Lesions to it can cause ToM impairments, etc.
  67. Biot-Savart Law
    Law in physics. States that the strength of the magnetic field and subsequent current deteriorates with distance
  68. Brain Trauma
    One type of patient that can be worked with in studies involving clinical patients. These patients had some sort of traumatic accident and now have a deficit due to it.
  69. Capability
    consideration with patient studies. Must consider if the population will be able to complete the required tasks to the best of their abilities.
  70. Causation
    The presence or absence of one variable leads to the presence or absence of another. Critical for establishing functionality
  71. Comorbidity
    consideration with patient studies. Presence of another disease/disorder along with the one that you're looking at. Could be a confounding variable in the study.
  72. Condition
    the different cases used in the overall experimental setup.
  73. Deep Brain TMS
    TMS subcategory specifically for deeper brain regions.
  74. deficit emotional systems
    one of two variables that contributes to social deficits with OFC damage. Includes the somatic marker hypothesis and reinforcement and reversal theory.
  75. Faraday's Law
    An electrical current is generated in a conductor whenever the conductor is placed in a rapidly changing magnetic field.
  76. Fast-frequency rTMS (magnetic activations)
    Causes relative depolarization and is dependent on the activity on inhibitory GABA neurons.
  77. Functional resolution
    the combination of spatial and temporal resolution; used to examine a causal relationship (specifically in TMS).
  78. High-intensity stimulation (suprathreshold)
    Produces remote effects (transsynaptic effects) via white matter tract
  79. Low-intensity stimulation (subthreshold)
    Targets underlying tissue.
  80. Motor threshold
    The smallest power necessary to elicit involuntary finger movements over motor cortex
  81. mPFC
    Association cortex, implicated in social behaviors such as social cognition, Reward, Positive Affect, Working Memory
  82. Orbitofrontal damage
    associated with impaired interpersonal behavior; specifically, causes behavior with strangers in ways that are more appropriate for interactions with close others.
  83. Paradigm
    The overall experimental setup of the experiment.
  84. Personality and Social Deficits
    One type of patient that can be worked with in studies involving clinical patients. These patients have some sort of neurodevelopmental or mental health disorder.
  85. Phineas Gage
    Railroad worker; tamping iron shoot through his frontal lobe; 1848;large changes in his personality due to the accident. His case is famous in that it linked social behavior to the frontal cortex.
  86. Reinforcement and reversal theory
    proposes that OFC is necessary for evaluating what behaviors will generate positive emotion and negative emotion in a given context.
  87. repetitive TMS (rTMS)
    Repeated pulses administered for a few minutes creates a larger window of effect single the effect of a single pulse lasts for a very short duration.
  88. Self-monitoring (online behavioral monitoring)
    one of two variables that contributes to social deficits with OFC damage. The ability/cognitive processes used to evaluate one's behavior in the moment and make sure that the behavior is consistent with how they want to behave and how other people expect them to behave. Basically an ability to gage your own appropriateness.
  89. Slow-frequency rTMS (magnetic lesions)
    induces a state of hyperpolarization and is dependent on the activity on inhibitory GABA neurons.
  90. somatic marker hypothesis
    proposes that OFC is critical for interpreting somatic sensations(=to emotions in this situation) that are needed to make decisions
  91. Temporal Lobe
    Region of the cortex implicated in intentionality.
  92. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
    transmembrane potentials (secondary electric currents) depolarize underlying brain cells tangentially oriented to the skull, causing them to fire rapidly or cease firing at all; surface cortical regions.
  93. Magnetoencephalogram
    A recording of the magnetic fields generated within the brain.
  94. 250ms
    When in-group and out-group faces are differentiated
  95. Action Potential
    depolarization across the cell membrane leads to the firing of a neuron
  96. AIM
    40 item questionnaire assessing magnitude/intensity of emotions (general reactivity)
  97. Alpha (EEG frequency)
    8-18 Hz - posterior - relaxation, eyes closed -Attenuated by attention and mental effort
  98. Anger
    Associated with left PFC activation
  99. BDI
    Beck Depression Inventory, measures cognitive, affective, and somatic symptoms of depression
  100. Beta (EEG frequency)
    13-30 Hz - anterior - local processing?
  101. Current
    Caused by motion of charges (flow of charges due to a potential difference)
  102. Current Flow
    generated by the motion of charges
  103. Cz
    EEG/MEG detector location, near top of head, between frontal and parietal lobes.
  104. Delta (EEG frequency)
    <4Hz - deep sleep - very high amplitude
  105. EEG (electroencephalography)
    neural electric currents by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, surface of the brain (intracranial) or placed within substance of the brain (depth), most sensitive to dipoles oriented normal to surface
  106. EEG Hardware
    skull cap w/ electrodes to measure electrical activity, amplifiers --> generation of electroencephalogram
  107. EEG Signal Strength
    1 picotesla - very small
  108. Electric Potential
    potential energy of a partical generated by a charge difference between the particle and a nearby particle
  109. Electroencephalogram
    Recording of the potentials on the scalp generated by currents emanating from the nerve cells in the brain
  110. Electroencephalograph
    Instrument for performing electroencephalography
  111. ERPs (event-related potentials)
    A distinct neural signal that results from cognitive activity/cerebral processing. EEG measurement that can correspond to a function or activity.
  112. Evoked Potential
    any neuronal response by stimulating sensory receptors/peripheral nerves, time-related to cog. processes or motor programming; most from primary sensory responses v. cognitive processing/direct brain recording
  113. Fiducial Skull Markings
    Naison (front) and Inion (back) serve as general guides for the placement of the EEG skull cap
  114. Fourier components/frequency components
    Every waveform can be represented by a series of frequency elements according to Fourier analysis theory (The Fourier transform is a mathematical operation that decomposes a function into its constituent frequencies, known as its frequency spectrum)
  115. Fz
    EEG/MEG detector location, above frontal lobe
  116. Gamma (EEG frequency)
    30-100 Hz - local processing
  117. Hans Berger
    first to report electrical signals recorded from human scalp (EEG)
  118. Inion
    Fiducial marking on skull using to find detector locations, is the bump at the back bottom of your skull
  119. Late-positive Potential (LPP) at 520ms
    non-face evaluative judgments, magnitude of the response provides a graded index of the degree to which a target stimulus differs evaluatively from the preceding context, not under conscious control
  120. Magnetic field
    Generated by a moving charge; exert forces on moving charges
  121. Magnetoencephalogram
    recording of magnetic fields generated w/in brain
  122. Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
    the recording of magnetic fields generated in the brain by means of sensitive magnetic field detectors placed close to the scalp
  123. MC
    Murrie and Cornell somethingsomething, measures tendency to deny negative characteristics that are likely to be common in the general population
  124. MEG (magnetoencephalography)
    Recording of neural magnetic fields by means of sensitive mag. field detectors positioned close to the scalp. Most sensitive to dipoles oriented parallel to surface. Great spatial res, poor temporal res
  125. Microvolts
    Unit of electrical field detection
  126. Mismatch Negativity (MMN)
    component of the ERP to an odd stimulus in a sequence of stimuli (unexpected attributes etc.), corresponds to the P300
  127. N100
    negative deflection, threatening primes elicit more attention, thought to be an orienting response (Kubota & Ito)
  128. N170 (VPP)
    Specialized for faces
  129. N400
    Detects synchronicity, issues with continuity (i.e. He filled his refrigerator with socks.)
  130. Nasion
    Fiducial marking on skull using to find detector locations, located at bridge of nose
  131. P200
    larger in response to angry and fearful facial expression than to neutral facial expressions; also larger to Blacks than Whites in White participants
  132. P300
    localized to ACC, error related negativity. We think it's related to executive control, signal is more common when expectation different from actual outcome (detection of change)
  133. P300
    corresponds to mismatch negativity, attention to motivationally significant stimuli or hightly arousing stimuli (Kubota & Ito)
  134. PANAS-GEN Scale
    20 emotion descriptors that assess positive & negative affect (used in Watson et al. 1988 study)
  135. Picotesla
    unit of magnetic field strength; on skull, strength of magnetic fields are .1 to 1 picotesla (very very small)
  136. Pz
    EEG/MEG detector location, above parietal lobe
  137. Resistance
    restricts current flow
  138. Right Hemisphere Model
    emotions are expressed more clearly on left side of face due to the dominance of the right hemisphere in emotional expression
  139. Skull Cap
    fits over skull of subject, contains a predetermined number of wells that are filled with conductive gel; electrodes are then applied in these wells to measure the EEG signal
  140. SQUID
    magnetic field detector - tiny loop of superconductor interrupted @ two points by Josephson junctions. Converts mag. field effect on minute currents to a voltage. Range: as small as 1 femotesla. Used in MEG.
  141. STAI
    State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, measures cognitive and affective components of anxiety
  142. T3 & T4
    anterior temporal electrode sites in skull cap for EEG
  143. Tesla
    Unit of magnetic field strength. Just above skull - brain's magnetic fields are .1-1 picotesla (tiny)
  144. Theta (EEG frequency)
    4-8 Hz - drowsiness or light sleep - frontal midline theta proportional to mental effort
  145. Valence Model
    the left hemiface bias is stronger for negative emotions and weaker or reversed for positive emotions
  146. Vertex Positive Potential (VPP)
    same thing as the N170, sensitive to face processing, early structural coding stage
  147. Waveform
    Shape & form of an EEG signal, may have several high frequency components
  148. Ingroup
    The group an individual identifies with
  149. Outgroup
    Anyone not in the group that an individual identifies with
  150. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    Body's way of storing free energy - released when it is converted to adenosine DIphosphate (ADP, though Harris accidentally called it ATD)
  151. Brain activation
    neural activity increases CBF to replenish neurons, tracked by brain imaging techniques
  152. Cerebral blood flow (CBF)
    Volume per minute moving through vessels in the brain, THIS is measured, not CBV
  153. Cerebral blood volume (CBV)
    Volume occupied by vessels in the brain
  154. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)
    more structural; and focuses on the grey matter
  155. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
    Uses NMR concepts of nuclear magnetic moments to visualize neural activity related to CO2 byproduct of metabolism; blood flow="flooding the garden to water one flower"
  156. Glucose and oxygen
    Metabolized to produce ATP (1 glucose molecule = 38 ADP converted to ATP)
  157. Glycolysis
    Metabolic process that produces 4 ATP but uses 2 for net of 2 ATP
  158. Hemodynamic lag
    Time lapse between actual activity and the CO2 output you are measuring - total 16-18 sec. between stimuli recommended
  159. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    Uses radioactive dyes to visualize neural activity (spatial resolution, 1 cubic cm)
  160. T1 fMRI image
    structural, very detailed, can look at entire brain
  161. T2* fMRI image
    functional, not so great resolutino but shows activity. obtained by subtraction...DIFFERENCE of activity. poor temporal resolution, can be overlaid on T1
  162. Trans-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
    Metabolic process that produces 36 ATP, uses oxygen unlike glycolysis
  163. William James
    hypothesized that blood likely rushes to cortical regions in relation to activity (related to MRI)
  164. Advantages of ANS recording
    changes in ANS can indicate shifts in emotion, motivation, attention, preferences; implicit measure, linked to mental and physical health vulnerabilities
  165. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
    Part of the peripheral nervous system; serves regulatory system, helps the body adapt to internal and environmental demands, maintains homeostasis
  166. Blood Pressure (BP)
    amount of pressure on the vessel walls during the cardiac cycle,
  167. Cardiovascular activity (CV)
    Includes Heart-rate variability (Electrocardiogram, ECG), Respiration, Cardiac output
  168. Charles Darwin
    Darwin's thesis: the configuration of emotional facial expressions has evolved from a functional role in regulating sensory intake
  169. classical fear conditioning
    the organism acquires a conditioned fear response to a previously neutral stimulus through the direct experience with its pairing with a naturally aversive event, the unconditioned stimulus
  170. Corrugator
    furrows the brow; associated with effort, anger, sadness, disgust
  171. Darwin's thesis
    the configuration of emotional facial expressions has evolved from a functional role in regulating sensory intake
  172. demand evaluations
    involve perceptions and judgments of the danger, uncertainty, and required effort in a motivated performance situation
  173. Diastolic BP (DBP)
    lowest pressure in the arteries
  174. Dienstbier's work
    we have indentified and validated physiological indices of threat and challenge on the basis of patterns of neurally and hormonally controlled cardiovascular responses
  175. Disadvantages of ANS Recording
    Equipment, diffuse response, signal to noise
  176. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
    Heart produces a measurable electrical signal; recording consists of P, Q, R, S, and T waves
  177. Electrodermal activity (EDA)
    Includes Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), Skin Conductance Response (SCR)
  178. Electromyography (EMG)
    a measure of the electric activity (action potentials) generated during muscle contraction
  179. Eye-Tracking
    proxy for attention, records the position of the retina on a screen
  180. Facial Electromyography (EMG)
    physiological technique for measuring constriction of muscle fibers; record electrical activity of motor units prior to contraction of muscle
  181. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)
    measures responses in the eccrine sweat glands
  182. Heat maps
    where is the participant looking
  183. Impedance Cardiography
    Noninvasive technique to measure blood flow changes in the heart, allow estimates of how much blood is ejected during each heart cycle
  184. Levator Labii Superioris
    raises upper lip & flares nostrils; associated with a disgust facial expression
  185. Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
    Approximately [(2 X DBP) + SBP]/3
  186. Motor Unit Action Potential (MUAPs)
    EMG records changes in electrical potentials from the conduction of action potentials at the motor units during muscle contration
  187. Motor Units
    activate muscle fibers
  188. MPFC
    hypothesized to be involved in mentalizing about self and others
  189. Myofibrils
    part of bundles of muscle fibers; contains proteins actin and myosin
  190. observational fear learning
    learning through observing others or situations involving fear
  191. Orbicularis Oculi
    creates 'crows feet' at the eyes; cannot be intentionally activated; in combination with zygomaticus major activation, produces Duchene (true) smile
  192. Paul Ekman
    created the standard set of facial expressions widely used in research; the show Lie to Me is based on him; not taken as seriously today
  193. Pulse Pressure (PP)
    SBP-DBP
  194. Pupil dilometry
    how wide or small the pupils open or close
  195. rationalist theories of moral psychology
    have long emphasized the role of conscious reasoning in morality
  196. Resource evaluations
    involve perceptions and judgments of knowledge and abilities relevant to situational performance, dispositional characteristics and external support in the situation
  197. Respiration
    Measured using a strain gauge
  198. Saccades
    how many, position, and temporal sequence of saccades
  199. Skin Conductance
    passes a small current through the skin via bipolar placement of sensors, measures the resistance to that current, reciprocal to the resistance in SC
  200. Skin Potential
    Unipolar electrode, anybody have a better explanation
  201. Startle Eye-Blink
    startle is an involuntary defense response; affected by situational factors, dispositional, and information processing methods
  202. Stigma
    many theorists argue that bearers of stigmas cause perceivers to feel a sense of uncertainty, discomfort, anxiety, or even danger during social interactions
  203. Stigma-Threat Hypothesis
    perceivers interacting with stigmatized others experience threat
  204. Systolic BP (SBP)
    peak pressure in the arteries
  205. Zygomaticus Major
    pulls the corners of the lips to a curl; associated with smiles, happiness
  206. Accuracy (Sample assay quality parameter)
    Ability to measure the true concentrations of a hormone
  207. Activational
    Can occur during cyclical changes (ovulation), temporary
  208. Centrifuge
    Can be used to spin hormonal samples in assaying to push course content to bottom of tubes and isolate supernant (watery part of sample)
  209. Circadian rhythm
    Body's day cycle affects hormone levels, controlled for by testing during afternoons only
  210. Cortisol
    Steroid, stress hormone, interacts with testosterone in competitive contexts
  211. Enzymatic Immunoassays (EIA)
    Use enzymatic labels differentiated by coloration, luminescence, or fluorescence; less sensitive/accurate than RIA
  212. Estradiol
    Steroid, precursor to estrogen, promotes oxytocin expression, important for dominant responses in competitive interactions for women
  213. Hormones
    Messenger molecules, carry signals at the speed of light, er, blood; released by neurons (hypothalamus) and glands (pituitary gland) into bloodstream); can have different effects in the body and in the brain
  214. Menstrual cycle
    Affects hormone levels, controlled by figuring out position of females in their cycle
  215. Negative feedback loops
    Control, tightly monitor release of hormones (if hormone levels change, brain releases another hormone to travel to glands to increase or decrease amount of hormones in circulation) - hormone levels affect other hormones
  216. Organizational hormone effects
    Occur during development or hormonal flux (puberty), have lasting influences that change shape and function of organism
  217. Oxytocin
    Peptide, increases trust behavior in certain contexts, reduces fear response and amygdala activation, increases ToM ability; increases ability to recognize faces you've seen before (Rimmele et al)
  218. Assay Quality Parameters
    Specifcity, Sensitivity, Accuracy & Precision
  219. Peptides
    Short protein molecules composed of small number of amino acids, large molecular structure, easily broken down. Goal setters: set the motivational state. Are localized, but depend on steroid signals to promote their synthesis and action
  220. Precision (Sample assay quality parameter)
    Closeness of agreement between sample results repeatedly and independently obtained under stable conditions
  221. Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
    Method for assessing salivary hormone levels with radioactively labeled hormones
  222. Sensitivity (Sample assay quality parameter)
    Lowest dose of hormone that can be distinguished from no dose of hormone
  223. Specificity (Sample assay quality parameter)
    Ability to maximize measurement of targeted hormone, and minimize measurement of non-targeted
  224. Steroids
    Synthesized in body from cholesterol, highly stable structure, not bound to proteins, smaller than peptides on average. Play makers: set the pace of communication
  225. Testosterone
    Steroid, promotes vasopressin expression, related to increased attention to angry faces and aggressive-dominant personality style, important for dominant responses in competitive interactions for men
  226. Vasopressin
    Peptide, seems to prepare person for aggression, involved in tend or befriend vs fight or flight, increases anxiety; sometimes thought of as the female testosterone
  227. 5 Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
    serotonin
  228. CNVs (copy number variants)
    duplication or deletion of larger sections of DNA (includes inversions & translocations)
  229. cultural neuroscience
    discipline investigating cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes
  230. DNA polymerase
    enzyme that facilitates addition of a A,C,T,G basepair on the sugar phosophate backbone of DNA
  231. Functional polymorphism
    a gene sequence present in less than 1% of population, that affects regulation of gene and/or functional protein product
  232. Genotyping
    process for determining differences in genetic makeup of organisms
  233. haplotype
    combinations of alleles/genes at different loci of the same chromosome that are inherited together
  234. HapMap project
    genotyping 270 individuals from 4 phylogenetically old populations
  235. linkage disequilibrium
    nonrandom association of alleles in haplotypes. Gives us ability to make comparisons within the population to see what variations useful for functionality
  236. map based mapping
    use a set of markets designed to be in LD with all variants
  237. Normal variation
    all parts and all functions of an organism vary within definite limits. Universal in organic existence
  238. Outlier/Disease model
    study extreme phenotypes, rare genetic variations can give us insight into neural mechanisms
  239. PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
    method for assessing length variations of DNA
  240. Power
    probability of detecting variation
  241. sequence based mapping
    itemize variants that are candidates for functionality
  242. SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism)
    single nucleotide change (changing an A to a C), most commonly investigated genetic trait
  243. Social brain hypothesis of Schizophrenia
    psychosis comes as a by product of social brain evolution and thus based on genetic factors support higher order social cognition
  244. ToM (Theory of Mind)
    ability to represent the mental state of others, higher order form of social cognition representing thoughts, emotions and intentions of others
  245. vasopressin
    neuropeptide, key modulator of complex emotional and social behaviors including attachment, recognition, aggression and anxiety
  246. VNTR (variable number tandem repeats)
    arise though recombination. large repeats in DNA
  247. Actor-Observer Bias
    Actors tend to attribute their actions to external, situational causes, whereas observers tend to attribute the same actions to causes internal to the actor
  248. Altruism
    Goal is to increase another person's welfare
  249. attitudinal conformity
    Bennington Study, more liberal throughout time in college
  250. Attraction
    based on similarities, physically closer people are more likely to be in a relationship; familiriaty brreds good feelings
  251. Attribution Theory
    ordinary ppl social behavior? Dispositional (internal) attributions vs. situational (external) attributions; represents an attempt to determine the antecedents and consequences of some of man's causal beliefs
  252. behavioral conformity
    Crandall's sorority study, binging
  253. Brunswik attribution theory
    conceived of the perceptual process as an arc encompassing two end points--the entity represented or the distal stimulus and the local representation or the proximal stimuli serve as cues to the underlying distal stimuli, Bruswik noted that there is no one-to-one connection betwen them, and he proposed that the organism must venture hypotheses as the what type of entity has most probably caused the givn cues
  254. Conflict and Negotiation
    mediator is more likely to be just and see where others are not
  255. Conformity
    the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to what individual perceive is normal to their society or social group
  256. Fundamental Attribution Error
    the observer's tendency to underestimate the impact of situational factors and to overestimate the importance of dispositional factors
  257. Gender Norms, Roles & Stereotypes
    social and behavioral norms that are considered to be appropriate for a specific gender
  258. Group Differences
    in-group favoritism, out-group not liking
  259. Heider attribution theory
    derived directly from Brunswik's treatment of perception. Just as the perceiving organism must integrate the highly variable cues given in proximal stimulation in order to "infer" the relatively unchanging object that gave rise to them, the attributing organism must integrate the cues given in responses in order to infer the more stable factors that gave rise to them
  260. importance of the situation
    the idea that the context is relevant to the interpretation elicited; used with the triangles and circles experiment
  261. Inequality
    used homeless person as an example; how view people people in a difference social class than ourselves
  262. Influence Tactics
    people in high positions, as decision maketrs are less moral
  263. Ingredients of "True" Altruism
    Perceive other in need+take other's perspective; respond with empathy; experience altruistic motivation to reduce other's need; conduct cost-benefit analysis of helping; help
  264. Kelley attribution theory
    cog. processes might be engaged in by the individ during "inference."proposed individ interprets a given response in the context of the info gleaned from experiment like variations of conditions (distinctiveness, consesus, consistency)
  265. Kurt Lewin
    3 important concepts: the power of the situation, situational construal, tension systems
  266. Minimal Groups
    groups made on very arbitrary differences such as artist preferences or dot estimation
  267. normative influence
    conformity based on a desire to fulfill others' expectations or to gain acceptance
  268. Persuasion
    it is the process of guiding or bringing oneself or another toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and symbolic means
  269. Power of the Group
    used the example of the Nazis; group we belong to has an effect on behavior and neural activity
  270. Power of the Individual
    how the individual influences his/her own decisions
  271. Power of the Situation
    demonstrated in the Stanford prison experiment; has capacity to ovewhelm normal personality traits
  272. Rationalization
    an unconscious defense mechanism in which perceived controversial behaviors or feelings are logically justified and explained in a rational or logical manner in order to avoid any true explanation and made consciously tolerable by plausible means
  273. Self- Fulfilling Prophecies
    a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior
  274. Self-Interest
    Goal is to increase one's own welfare
  275. Self-Serving Biases
    when people attribute their successes to internal or personal factors but attribute their failures to situational factors beyond their control
  276. Three Approaches to Altruism
    Studies of altruistic motivation, Laboratory studies of helping behavior, field studies of extreme acts of helping
  277. True Conformity
    used in reference to Asch's line study in which the participant would conform to the incorrect answer after proving their ability to discern longer lines
  278. Two Definitions of Altruism
    behavior arising from altruistic motivation, helping (or other prosocial behavior)
  279. Behavioral Economics
    Conduct empirical tests of armchair theories, such as "How do markets and people actually behave?"
  280. Carrot and Stick Approach
    How to test reward and punishment in economic situations
  281. Choice Tasks
    Given options, have to choose one of them. Ex: Pick one three paths, you have x% likelihood of getting $x
  282. Dictator Game
    A gets money and decides how much money they will share with B (dictator and recipient)
  283. Economic Games
    Real economic games simulate psychological constructs
  284. Economics
    The study of markets and people; specialize in mathematical armchair theories; do not care about what actually happens in real world; skeptics about experiments - they use decision-making scenarios
  285. Free-Riding
    Not contributing money but getting benefits from Public Goods Game
  286. Negative Reinforcement
    Punishment; how people learn.
  287. Person Positivity Bias
    People perceive themselves and others as positive by default
  288. Positive Reinforcement
    Reward; how people learn.
  289. Prediction Error
    Shifting of activation from reward to prediction. When you’re in world, you make expectancies of what will happen. • If suddenly I walk out of class and there’ no corridor …
  290. Prisoners Dilemma
    Both say they're guilty: 3 years each. One says guilty the other not guilty: 1yr/5yrs. Joint cooperation: 2 yrs
  291. Problem (Tragedy) of the Commons
    Scenario where one person's benefit costs the group and themselves; cattle farmers,Live in a place with fixed resource of grass,If my cows graze, less for neighbors to use and less for me to use in the future
  292. Public Goods Game
    Complex PD. Imagine:Endowed a lot of money. Decide how much do you contribute to public good? (taxes) When it's in the public good, money gets multiplied and you all share it - everyone must part.free riding
  293. Schizophrenia
    Hallucinations and Delusions; due to excess domanine
  294. Social Target Theory
    when you meet someone, you perceive them in WARMTH (nice, not) and COMPETENCE (ability to enact intentions) -> PITY, PRIDE, DISGUST, ENVY; People perceived with disgust: low reactivity in MPFC
  295. Trust Game
    Investor is given money. He can either keep it or give it to trustee to invest it. If invested, money gets multiplied; Trustee chooses how much to give back to investor
  296. Ultimatum Game
    Like Dictator, but B is not passive - can accept and reject the split. If rejected, nobody gets the money.
  297. Zero-Sum Games
    Either A wins and B loses, or vice versa; no sharing of whatever resource is
  298. Breatano's Problem
    Gap between the physical stance and the intentional stance.
  299. Consciousness
    Locus of moral concern
  300. Epistemology
    The study of knowledge
  301. Ethics
    Particular moral issues and theories that attempt to resolve them
  302. Humean Dictum
    One cannot derive 'ought' from 'is'
  303. Impersonal dilemna
    Receive a letter asking you to donate $200 to Africa
  304. Intentional Stance
    Mindreading. View humans as agents of actions with intentional mental states, a way to predict behavior.
  305. Locus of Experience
    Subject and object of experience are one. The world as emotions, pains, pleasures and other conscious mental states
  306. Meta-Ethics
    Concerned with fundamental issues: "Is Capital Punishment Wrong?". Broader than Ethics
  307. Mind-Body Problem
    No physical machine can replace "personhood"
  308. Moral realism
    debunks moral judgments as simply a by-product of evolutionarily advantaged cognitive and affect processing
  309. Moral thinking
    Generating intuitions about nonphysical nature of consciousness
  310. Naturalistic fallacy
    Mistake of identifying that which is natural with that which is good
  311. Naturalized ethics
    facts about right and wrong are amendable to scientific discovery
  312. personal dilemna
    Encounter a bleeding man on the side of the road, Should you help him?
  313. Phenomenal Stance
    A core component of what it is to be human, that's independent of mindreading/intentional stance
  314. Physical Stance
    Folk physics. Predictions based on actual physical state of object, governed by laws of nature
  315. Spencerian social darwinism
    for good of the species, the government ought not interfere with nature's tendency to let the strong dominate the weak
  316. Adaptive Mechanisms
    dogs (innately) understand human pointing better than wolves (so this ability is not a result of a common ancestor b/w canines and humans) and chimps (not homology) do - dogs have co-evolved with humans
  317. Allomothers
    continue to rear kids for manyyearsafterweaning (weaning can end soon,mothers can breed again sooner); argument, allomothering reduces xenophobia and violent interactions b/w humans; brain size NOT a factor
  318. Altruistic Defense
    observed by Youk et al. in E. coli study - a few resistant bacteria produced indole at their own expense energetically to help the rest of the culture resist the antibiotic norfloxacin
  319. Altruistic Helping
    must cognitively know about goal & current obstacles, must motivationally exert effort to help other person with no immediate self benefit
  320. Analogy
    similar trait between two species derived as a consequence of similar environmental pressures; not a trait of a common ancestor
  321. Belayev's foxes
    experimental foxes selectively bred against xenophobia understood human pointing better than control foxes not selectively bred
  322. Charles Darwin
    father of evolution, theory of evolution by natural selection
  323. Cognitive Dissonance
    psychological state in which an individual's cognitions, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are at odds
  324. Cognitive Evolution
    primarily driven by species sociality (cognition evolves to solve challenges posed by specific environments)
  325. Common Ancestry
    two or more species descended from a common species of organism
  326. Cooperative Breeding
    individuals (often relatives) care for offspring that are not their own (humans, tamarin monkeys)
  327. Cross-species Perspective
    Comparative approach of different species can identify both the uniqueness of human and the process by which this uniqueness evolved
  328. Domestication
    the reduction of human xenophobia in non-human species; artificial selection by humans is a defining characteristic
  329. effort justification
    a possible alternative explanation to cognitive dissonance, a result of physiological arousal, effort alters the hedonic value of a reward
  330. Evolution
    process by which species become better adapted to their enviornments
  331. Evolutionary Anthropology
    interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and behavior from a comparative perspective - origins of humans, common ancestry w/ other species
  332. Free-choice Paradigm
    individuals are given a choice between two items that they have rated as equally attractive; subjects are asked to re-rate items after making the choice
  333. Homology
    similar trait between two species derived as a consequence of a shared common ancestor (preserved evolutionarily)
  334. Humans v. Great Apes
    different ecology (cooperative hunting & gathering), sexuality (long-term pair bonds, discrete mating), cognition (language, teaching), culture (complex artifacts), social organization (intense cooperation), lifespan (long lifespan, mid-life menopause)
  335. Inequity Aversion
    measure self, rewards given to self by those given to others; chimps exhibit this, as do humans - become dissatisfied w/ reward if see another get a "better" reward
  336. Instrumental helping
    observed inWarneken & Tomasello in young chimps, though not to the same degree as human infants when tested on the same task
  337. Mentalizing Abilities of Primates
    in competitive, but NOT cooperative contexts
  338. Natural Selection
    Darwin's theory of evolution;the environ exerts selective pressures on species that promote survival of the fittest organisms that are best-adapted to their enviornment: they survive and reproduce, passing their well-adapted traits along to offspring
  339. Niche
    the specific place in the environment occupied by an organism (can include things like predation relationships)
  340. Pro-Social Behavior
    helping behavior (chimp pushes sponge to experimenter, child hands clothespin to experimenter); requires understanding of goal & of others' intentions
  341. Proximate Cause
    immediate psychological and physiological mechanisms causing a particular behavior (e.g. hormones, active brain areas)
  342. Ultimate Cause
    evolutionary causes of a behavior - what are the costs and benefits to the species, in terms of SURVIVAL & REPRODUCTION
  343. What makes us human?
    developed prefrontal cortex, hyper-sociality, understanding another's mind in a cooperative context
  344. Correlation
    relationship between two quantities such that when one changes the other does (can be positive, negative, or zero)
  345. Correlation Matrix
    heat map of correlations that can generate predictions about probability that an event will occur in the future
  346. Flobi (may not be spelled correctly)
    one of the robots in the videos presented to us; was just the head, had the ability to communicate emotions through "facial" movements
  347. Full Neural Response
    Maximal response is one component of a much more complex phenomenon of interactions between neurons
  348. Fusiform Face Area (FFA)
    area in the ventral temporal cortex thought to be specialized for face representation
  349. Multi-voxel Pattern Analysis
    use of a pattern classifier to analyze (fMRI) data; involves searching through the BOLD signal data produced in fMRI experiments to identify patterns that are highly predictive of task conditions
  350. Nao
    one of the robots in the videos presented to us, full body robot, had the ability to "speak"
  351. Negative correlation
    when one variable increases, the other variable decreases
  352. Neural Network
    Schematic representation of weighted values derived from correlation coefficients, giving better estimates of how a neuron should respond in concert with other neurons (diagram of weighted interconnected pts)
  353. Object form topography
    proposes that the representation of faces and different categories of objects are widely distributed overlapping; small cortical area can support many responses b/c each neural response exhibits a distinct pattern in the ventral temporal cortex
  354. Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA)
    area in the ventral temporal cortex thought to be specialized for encoding and representation of scenes
  355. Pattern Classifier
    software program/technique that aggregates large amounts of data and finds patterns in it, capable of generating predictions for future patterns (e.g. Pandora radio, Facebook)
  356. Pattern Classifier method
    split imaging data in half, use half to train pattern classifier on your data, test the pattern classifier on the other half of the data, edit classifier if necessary
  357. Pattern Classifier Tasks
    anything from simple discrimination tasks to much more complex phenomena
  358. Positive correlation
    when one variable increases, the other one increases; when one variable decreases, the other decreases (positive slope)
  359. Support Vector Machines
    can extrapolate information from one dimensional data (input space) and some information about weights & correlative relationships to another dimension (feature space)
  360. Ceiling effect
    if hormone levels are already high (such as in the morning) injecting more hormone won't have much of an effect
  361. Zero correlation
    random distribution on a 2-variable scatter plot; no relationship between the two variables

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