Because of the lack of these in most domestic animals, experts in vetrinary medicine generally acknowledge that the first blood transfusion can be given without regard to blood typing or crossmatching.
Naturally occuring antibodies.
What structures are on the surface of RBC's that may react with antibodies from another animal?
In some disease (most notably IMHA) patient blood samples may demonstrate auto-agglutination. What simple test can be performed to verify this?
What does ELISA stand for?
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
Should a patient about the undergo intradermal allergy testing be sedated for the precedure?
In major crossmatching...
Donor cells are mixed with the recipient plasma.
In minor crossmaching...
Donor plasma is mixed with recipients cells.
A bitch in estrus has a history of recent proestrus and a swollen vulva. A vaginal smear would reveal...
All squamous epithelial cells are conified.
A vaginal exam on the horse should always be done after a rectal exam.
List three critera that are used to characterize semen.
Live or dead. Volume. Movement (mobility). Morphology (shape, size, etc.)
Because skin scrapings and ear swabs often contain bacteria and yeast, it is recommended that what be done with the stains used for this purpose?
You should be using different containers of stain then you normally use for staining other slides. (This is because you will contaminated the stain and contaminate all slides being stained with it.) You should also change the stain more frequently because you are dipping contaminated slides into it.
When collecting a specimen for dermatophyte testing hair should be...
Plucked from the periphery of the lesion.
What taking a deep skin scraping, the scraping should continue until...
Blood is just drawn.
What are two preferred methods of urine collection?
Catheterization and cystocentesis.
Ideally, urine samples should be analyzed within how long after colection to avoid post-collection artifacts and degenerative changes?
List two observations that are included in the gross examination of urine.
Color and volume.
List three chemical assays that are performed with paper reagent strips on urine samples.
PH, glucose, ketones, specific gravity, bilirubin, etc.
List four specifci constituents that you may find on microscope examination of urine sediment.
Casts, crystals, WBC, RBC, sperm, etc.
Where are casts formed?
Distal and collecting tubules of the kidney.
Which epithelial cell is the smallest you will find in the urine?
How should a blood sample be mixed with an anticoagulant?
What is the main difference between plasma and serum?
Plasma has fibrinogen in it. Serum does not.
Some anticoagulants may aggect certain chemical ass results.
As a rule of thumb, how much blood should be collected when running any blood test in the lab?
Enough to run the test three times.
In dogs and cats, which liver assay is considered liver-specific?
ALT - Alanine Aminotransferase.
In order for BUN (blood urea nitrogen) or creatinine levels to rise, how much of the kidney must be nonfunctional?
Why must serum or plasma be seperated from RBC's immediately after collection when running a test for blood glucose?
The RBC's will eat up the glucose if not seperated.
Schirmer tear tears and cultures should be performed before topical anesthetic is instilled.
To perform the Schirmer tear test, how long should the indicator strip be left in place?
(Fill in the blank) Fluorescein stain will show up where ....... is abscent.
Name the condition in which intraocular pressure (IOP) is increased?
Give one condition where determination of IOP is indicated.
Diffuse corneal edema, anisocoria (unequal pupil size), etc.
When taking an IOP reading in a hyperactive dog, which measurement device would be easier to use?