Ch. 58 BIO Final

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Ch. 58 BIO Final
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2011-12-11 16:43:16
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58 BIO Final
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Final
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  1. The total number of different species in the community
    species richness
  2. The proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community
    Relative abundance
  3. What are the four types of species richness?
    Time hypothesis, Area hypothesis, Productivity hypothesis, and Intermediate-disturbance hypothesis
  4. (Hypothesis) Temperate regions have less species rich communities because they are younger- resident species of temperate zones have not yet evolved new forms to exploit vacant niches- has limited applicability to marine organisms
    Time hypothesis
  5. (Hypothesis) Larger areas contain more species because they can support larger populations and a greater range of habitats- does not explain lack of species richness in large biomes such as the open ocean or tundra
    Area hypothesis
  6. (Hypothesis) Greater production by plants results in greater overall species richness- increased plant biomass leads to more herbivores which leads to more predators, etc- influenced by evapotranspiration rate- does not hold for broad comparisons between continents
    Productivity hypothesis
  7. (Hypothesis) The highest number of species are maintained in communities with intermediate levels of disturbance- high levels of disturbance favor r-selected species, while low levels of disturbance favor K- selected species
    Intermediate-disturbance hypothesis
  8. An event that changes in a community. It removes organisms from a community and alters resources available
    ex. draught, fire, flood, hurricanes
    Disturbance
  9. The gradual and continuous change in species composition and community structure over time (2 types)
    Succession (Primary and secondary)
  10. (succession) occurs where no soil exists when succession begins
    primary
  11. (succession) begins in an area where soil remains after a disturbance
    secondary
  12. (Mechanisms of succession) Each colonizing species makes the environments a little different so that it becomes more suitable for other species- continues until the most competitively dominant species has colonized- determined by climate and soil conditions
    Facilitation
  13. (Mechanism of succession) Early colonizing species prevent colonization by other species- the primary method of succession in the marine intertidal zone, where space is limited
    Inhibition
  14. (Mechanism of succession) Any species can start the succession- species that establish and remain do not change the environment in ways that either facilitate or inhibit subsequent species- species have differing tolerances to the intensity of competition
    Tolerance
  15. What are the two factors that determine the number of species on an "island" are the rate at which new species immigrate to the island and the rate at which species become extinct on the island- The physical features of the island that affect immigration and extinction are its size and its distance from the "mainland"
    Equilibrium model of island biogeography

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