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2011-12-12 23:00:16

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  1. Three types of muscle tissues
    skeletal,smooth and muscle
  2. skeletal muscle
    • voluntary control of contraction & relaxation.
    • and is striated with kught and dark bands visible with microscope
  3. skeletal muscle attachments
    attaches to bone skin and fascia
  4. cardiac muscle
    is striated and reflexes involuntary due to its autorythmic pacemaker
  5. striated
    alternating light and dark bands protien bands.
  6. voluntary (somatic)
    its activity can be consciously cotrolled by neurons that are part of the somatic part of the nervous system.
  7. involuntary
    not consiously controlled
  8. autorhythmicity
    built in rhythm like the so called pacemaker for the heart
  9. smooth muscle
    lines hollow organs and vessels and are attached to hair follicules and is a non striated involuntary muscle tissue.
  10. properties of muscle tissue that enables it to function and contibute to homeostasis.
    • excitabiltiy
    • irritablity
    • conductivity
    • contractility
    • extensibility
    • elasticity
  11. excitibility
    receives and respomds to a stimulus by an electrical signal that comes from a neuron or a pace maker
  12. irritability
    responds to neurotransmitter (chemicals) released by neurons, hormones or changes in ph
  13. conductivity
    ability to propagate (reproduce or make) electrical signals over membrane
  14. contractility
    Ability to generate forces (flex) while being shortened or not.
  15. extensibility
    ability to be streched without damaging tissue
  16. elasticity
    ability to return to original shape after being stretched
  17. superficila fascia
    loose connective tissue and fat underlying the skin
  18. deep fascia
    dense irregular connective tissue around muscle
  19. types of fascia
    superficial fascia and deep fascia
  20. types of deep fascia
    • epimysium
    • perimysium
    • endomysium
  21. epimysium
    the outermost layer of deep fascia or dense irregular connective tissue encircling the entire muscle.
  22. perimysium
    second layer down of a deep fascicle (dense irregular connective tissue) but surrounds groups of 10 to 100 or more muscle fibers seperating into fascicles.
  23. fascicles
    muscle fiber bundles in groups of 10 to 100 cause by perimysium
  24. endomysium
    seperates individual muscle fibers or cells it is mostly retivular fibers.
  25. tendons
    all the deep fascia extending beyond the muscle belly to attach to bone.
  26. Neuromuscular junction
    each motor neuron supplying multiple muscle cells or fibers
  27. inervation
    nerve supply in muscle
  28. fetal development of muscles
    derived from 100 or more myoblasts thats why a mature muscle cells has 100+ nuclei
  29. sarcolemma
    plasma membrane of a muscle cell
  30. sarcoplasm
    its within the sarcolemma it is filled with myofibrils glycogen and myglobin
  31. glycogen
    used for synthesis for atp
  32. myoglobin
    • protien only found in muscles
    • binds oxygen molecules that difuse into muscle fibers from interstitual fluid
  33. myofibrils
    • inside sarcoplasm they are the contractile elements of skeletal muscle cells
    • each myfibril consist of a chain of eevn samller contractile units called sarcomeres
    • within each myobiril their are smaller elements called myofilaments thick and thin.
  34. myofilaments
    their are thick and thin fillaments that are the contractile protiens of muscle.
  35. transverse tubules
    invaginations of the srcolemma in the center of the cell. they are filled with interstinial fluid and carries muscle action protiens or nerve impulses throughout the cell
  36. sarcoplamic reticulum
    runs all around myofibrils stores Ca+2 and a release of it promotes muscle contraction.
  37. A (anistropic) band
    the darker middle part of the sarcomemere due to thick filaments
  38. I (istotropic) band
    is a lighter less dense area that contains the rest of the thin fillaments no thick filaments
  39. z disc
    verticle zig zag lines that seperate each sarcomere
  40. H zone
    center of each A band length wise its filaments in this region is thick
  41. M line
    verically center throughoutht the whole sarcomere
  42. protiens of muscle
    contractile portiens, regulatory protiens,and structural protiens
  43. contractile protiens
    consist of myosin and actin
  44. protien of muscle myosin
    • thick filaments are composed of myosin
    • each molecules looks like two gulf clube twisted together
    • theirs a myosine head that looks like the end of a gulf club and a myosin tail
  45. protiens of muscle actin
    cross bridges
  46. neuromuscular junction
    synapse between a somatic neuronn and a skeletal muscle fiber
  47. aectoylcholine ACH
    chemical realeased by the nmj
  48. Muscular Dystophies
    • Inherited muscle destroying diseas the sarcolemma tears during contraction
    • occurs mostly in males
    • gene therapy is the cure
  49. abnormal contractions
    • spasm
    • cramp
    • tic
    • tremor
    • fasciculation
  50. spasm
    involuntary contraction of a single muscle
  51. cramp
    a painful spasm
  52. tic
    involuntary twitching of muscles
  53. Tremor
    rhymic involuntary contractionof opposing muscle groups
  54. fasciculation
    involuntary brief twitch of a motor unit visible under the skin
  55. neurology
    study of the nervous
  56. function of the nervous system
    • sensory function
    • integritive function
    • motor function
    • organiztation of the nervous system
  57. parts of the nervous system
    centeral nervous system and peripheral nervous system
  58. central nervous system
    cinsust of the brain and spinal cord
  59. peripehral nervous system
    anythining other than the brain and the spinal cord like cranial nerves ganglia enteric plexus and sensory receptors
  60. types of neurons
    projection and intrinsic neurons
  61. projection neurons
    has long projections that connect to other regions of the nervous system
  62. intrinsic neurons
    no process or short proocess but they are containe in intirely in one region
  63. dendrites
    conduct impulses towad cell body it contains neurofibils and nissl bodies
  64. sensory (afferent) neurons
    transprot sensory information fom skin muscles joints orgna ND VISCER to cns
  65. motor (efferent) neurons
    send motor nerve impulses to muscles and glands
  66. interneurons (association) neurons
    connect sensory to motor neurons this consist of 90% of neurons in the body.
  67. bipolar neurons
    one main dendrite and one axon
  68. uniploar neuron
    one process only
  69. multipolar neuron
    several dendrites and one axon
  70. types of neurons
    multipolar, bipolar and unipolar neurons
  71. functional classses pof neurons
    • sensory (afferent) neurons
    • motor (efferent) neurons
    • interneurons (association) neurons
  72. sensory afferent neurons
    transprot sensory information fromskinmuscles joints sense organs and viscera from cns
  73. motor (efferent) neurons
    send motor nerve impulses to muscles and glands
  74. interneurons (association) neurons
    • connect sensory to motor neurons
    • 90% of neuron in the body
  75. axodendritic
    froma axon to dendrite
  76. axosomatic
    from axon to cell body
  77. axoaxonic
    from axon to axon
  78. enlargements of the spinal cord
    cervicalenlarment and lumbar enlargement